Terms in this set (75)
in early Greek city-states, a fortified gathering place at the top of a hill which was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings
sea between the peninsula of Greece and Asia Minor; thousands of islands are located in it
Famous Greek playwright who composed the only complete trilogy possessed today, the Oresteia
Age of Pericles
the period between 461 and 429 B.C. when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power
in early Greek city-states, an open area that served as a gathering place and as a market
Alexander the Great
King of Greece and Macedonia who conquered the Persian Empire with his great military skill
Greek capital of Egypt
Famous Greek scientist of the Hellenistic period who was important for his work on the geometry of spheres and cylinders, and for establishing the value of the mathematical constant pi
in early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to win in a struggle or contest
Greek philosopher, a student of Plato's, who found three good forms of government -- monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional -- of which he favored constitutional government for most people
peninsula bordered by the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea, and the Mediterranean; Ionian Greek cities were located on its Aegean coast
to gather; to meet together
Greek city-state; created the foundations of democracy
sea northeast of Greece and Balkan peninsula; Greek seafarers sailed to it, making contact with the outside world
strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea
period during which a people called Minoans had a civilization on Crete; 2700 B.C. to 1450 B.C.
city that later became Constantinople and is now Istanbul
authoritative, traditional; relating to the literature, art, architecture, or ideals of the ancient Greek and Roman world
Athenian statesman, a reformer like Solon, who established a more democratic constitution and is generally regarded as the founder of Athenian democracy.
island south of Greek mainland; Minoan civilization was located there
Persian ruler who was defeated by an outnumbered Athenian army on the plain of Marathon in 490 B.C.
discussed by considering opposing viewpoints
Defensive alliance against the Persians
Greek island; headquarters of the Delian League
location of sacred shrine in Greece; famous oracle of Apollo was consulted there
"the rule of the many," government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives
a system of government in which the people participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings
one of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens
a long poem that tells the deeds of a great hero, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer
school of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure
important astronomer during the Hellenistic Age; determined that Earth was round and calculated Earth's circumference within 185 miles
moral principles; generally recognized rules of conduct
important mathematician of the Hellenistic Age; wrote Elements, a textbook on plane geometry
Famous Greek playwright who showed greater interest in real-life situations then with gods
one who founds or establishes
the age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world
strait between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea
in ancient Sparta, captive peoples who were forced to work for their conquerors
Greek historian who wrote History of the Persian Wars
Ancient Greek poet who wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey, the first great epic poems
in the early Greek military system, heavily armed foot soldiers
expresses indirectly through reference or association
territory located along the western shore of Asia Minor; during the Dark Age, many Greeks settled there
powerful kingdom north of Greek city-states that emerged by the end of the fifth century B.C.
a systematic plan for doing something
rich culture on Crete 2700-1450 B.C.; far-ranging sea empire with palace complex at Knossos; influenced the peoples of the Great mainland
Indo-Europeans on mainland Greece who dominated most of Greece and invaded Crete, helping to destroy the Minoan civilization; flourished between 1600 B.C. and 1100 B.C.
"the rule of the few," a form of government in which a small group of people exercises controls
highest mountain in Greece; home to the 12 chief Greek gods and goddesses
in ancient Greece, a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess
in ancient Athens, the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote
to take part
one of four Hellenistic kingdoms that emerged after Alexander the Great died
Athenian ruler from 461-429 B.C., who expanded Greece's borders and expanded the involvement of Athenians in their democracy
a wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching close together in a rectangular formation
came to the Macedonian throne in 359 B.C.; turned Macedonia into the chief power of the Greek world
an organized system of thought, from the Greek for "love of wisdom"
One of the greatest philosophers of Western civilization, he searched for the ideal state of society (c. 428 B.C. - 347 B.C.).
the early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding territory
Greek philosopher; taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers
a ceremony or a rite
Greek sculptor who was an influential philosopher; he was eventually sentenced to death for questioning authority and corrupting youth; he was killed in 399 B.C. by drinking hemlock, a poison.
the method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates, it employs a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason
A reform-minded aristocrat who received full power to correct an economic crisis by canceling all land debts and freed people who were enslaved for debts. His reforms however, did not solve the problem.
traveling teachers in ancient Greece who taught that there was no absolute right or wrong; goal was to argue effectively
A famous Greek playwright who wrote Oedipus Rex, a famous Greek tragedy
Greek city-state; focused on military training and war
a school of thought developed by the teacher Zeno in Hellenistic Athens; happiness is achieved only when people gain inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God and bearing whatever life offers
a plan or method
aiding or promoting with public money
Greek city-state; struggled against Sparta and Athens to dominate Greek affairs
Greatest historian of the ancient world; placed much emphasis on accuracy and verification
form of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and having a protagonist who is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a fatal flaw
a ruler who seized power by force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiers and fighting tactics
Persian ruler who led a massive invasion into Greece in 480 B.C.; was defeated at Plataea in 479 B.C.