Upgrade to remove ads
Day 1 DELTA Terms
Taken from ITI DELTA Module 1 class notes. Includes definitions from "The Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics" (Richards, Platt and Weber), "About Language" (Thornbury) and "An A-Z of ELT" (Thornbury).
Terms in this set (53)
The process by which a person learns a language is sometimes called ________________ instead of learning, because some linguists believe that this is a special process (more to do with the unconscious than the conscious).
A way of drilling students in new language. First you get them to repeat the last syllable or word, then the last two and so on, building up to the point where they can say the whole sentence.
The part of the sentence which follows the verb and which thus completes the sentence. There are several kinds, including subject _____________________:
"She is a doctor."
"We made her the chairperson"
"They argued about what to do."
A vocabulary which is used to write definitions in dictionaries. In the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English all the definitions are written using a 2000 word vocabulary, so anyone who knows those 2000 words can understand all the definitions.
EAP (English for Academic Purposes)
The English that someone needs to undertake a course of academic study. This differs from general English in the skills they will be able to deploy (listening to lectures and note-taking, giving presentations) and in the style of things they will be expected to read and write (most academic articles are lexically denser than other kinds of text and tend to use more formal Latinate terms and particular grammatical structures).
A process which sometimes occurs in which incorrect linguistic features become a permanent part of the way a person speaks or writes a language. This could be aspects of pronunciation, vocabulary usage or grammar.
A GRADABLE PAIR
This is one type of several types of antonyms. __________________________ are thing like big and small, hot and cold where there are possible gradations between the antonyms (as opposed to male and female where there isn't).
This is words which are written in the same way and sound alike but which have different meanings e.g. "lie" in :
"I need to lie down."
"If you lie to me there will be trouble."
AN INTERLINGUAL ERROR
This is an error which results from language transfer - interference from the learner's native language. E.g. ' I made my homework.' is probably a direct
translation from the Turkish where yapmak does not follow the make/do patterns of collocation in English.
A KINESTHETIC LEARNER
Different people assimilate and retain information in different ways and some learners have a preference for movement as part of their language learning experience (though they may or may not be aware of that). The other two preferences that are commonly held to be part of this taxonomy (in NLP) are visual and auditory.
This describes a speech sound (a consonant) that is produced by the lower lip touching or nearly touching the upper teeth. For example, in English the /f/ in /fæt/ and the /v/ in /væt/.
(In language teaching) a way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principles and procedures, i.e. which is an application of views on how language is best taught and learned. Different _________________________(grammar translation, audio-lingual etc) result from different views of how language is learned, what language is, what our goals should be etc etc.
A NORM REFERENCED TEST
This is a test in which the performance of a particular student is measured against other students, so the top 50% pass (as opposed to a criterion referenced test such as PET or FCE, where a standard or criterion has been agreed upon, so perhaps everyone passes or no one passes).
This is where a learner makes an error because they have extended the use of a grammatical rule or linguistic item beyond the boundaries for which it can actually be used. E.g. mans for men.
Communication between people which is not intended to seek or convey information, but has the function of establishing or maintaining social contact.
A speech variety used by a particular group of people, usually sharing the same occupation (e.g. doctors, lawyers) or the same interests. It distinguishes itself by having a number of distinctive words, by using words and phrases in a particular way and sometimes by special grammatical constructions.
In the group of words vehicles, cars, vans, trucks vehicles is the _______________________ and the name of the relationship is hyponymy.
A TRANSITIVE VERB
This is a verb that takes an object e.g. build.
"We have built a palace. "
They can also be used in passive constructions.
"She shall be buried by Anthony."
AN INTRANSITIVE VERB
This is a verb which doesn't take an object.
These verbs cannot be made passive.
This is a verb that takes a direct and an indirect object.
"I gave the money to my mother."
"You should read us the will."
A noun phrase which is an optional part of the sentence and which names or indicates the one who is being addressed
"Really dear, do you think so ?"
"That's a pretty dress, Mrs Johnson."
The parts of the mouth, throat and nose that are used to produce (or articulate) speech.
A cognate is a word that has the same or very similar forms in two languages (usually because it was derived from a source common to both). In Turkish and English some words are cognates when you hear them (chauffeur and şoför) though this is less obvious when you see the written forms.
If a text has cohesion, its elements are connected. It is the use of lexical and grammatical elements to achieve connected text. This could be through lexical repetition, substitution, ellipsis, grammatical reference, linkers etc.
A _____________________ contains only co-ordinate clauses (as opposed to a main clause and a sub-ordinate clause which make up a complex sentence).
E.g. "Jack fell down and broke his crown."
"He put in his thumb and pulled out a plum."
Each of the clauses could stand alone.
Two or more clauses of equal rank which are linked.
"[Jan opened the door]" and "[we went in]".
A sentence that contains a main clause (with the main idea of the sentence) and one or two subordinate clauses.
"[The door closed behind us] main clause [when we were inside] subordinate clause".
The good, bad, humorous, old-fashioned or other associations of a word. E.g. propaganda has negative ____________________ in English.
A collection of actually occurring tests (either spoken or written), stored and accessed by means of computers, and useful for investigating language use. They vary in size. The COBUILD _______________ and the British National ____________________ have hundreds of millions of words.
A ______________________ sentence is a statement.
"These take longer to write than you think they are going to."
It can be affirmative or negative as opposed to an interrogative
"Will they prove to be fun to do ?"
Or an imperative
Although these labels are connected to word order, so if you say
"You are coming ?"
With a questioning intonation, it is still a _____________________ even though it might function as a question.
This is a syllabus based around a list of language functions such as asking for information, accepting and refusing invitations.
A programme where children as a group are taught their school subjects in a language that is not their mother tongue. It is aimed at fostering bilingualism. It can be total or partial and originated in Canada in the 1960s.
Different learners respond in different ways and the study of _________________________ tries to account for some of this. Factors involve age, gender, personality, learning style, aptitude, motivation etc.
Words like "very", "rather", "absolutely", that modify adjectives, adverbs and verbs by heightening or lowering their intensity.
The term used to describe the grammatical system that a learners creates in the course of learning another language. It is neither their first language system, nor the target language system, but occupies a transitional point between the two.
A ______________________ to language teaching is one that has chosen vocabulary (or lexis) as the main focus for syllabus design and classroom teaching. This contrasts with traditional approaches, which usually focus on grammar.
The often destructive effect that majority languages have on minority languages and cultures. It has been estimated, for example, that of the present 6000 or so languages spoken in the world, only 10% will still be around in 100 years time.
Words which join what has already been said (or written) to what follows. They do so by showing the sense relationship between the two linked elements. They may be additive (and), summative (all in all), appositive ( in other words), contrastive (but) ...
METALANGUAGE / TERMINOLOGY
The language that is used to talk about language.
A pair of words which differ in meaning when only one sound (one phoneme) is changed. "Pair" and "bear" are a minimal pair as the difference in meaning depends on the different pronunciation of their first sound.
Morphology is the area of grammar that is concerned with the formation of words. It contrasts with syntax, which is concerned with the structure of sentences, including the order of words within them.
A way of organising a lesson so that learners are presented with some language (lexis, grammar or phonology), then practice it in a controlled way, then have an opportunity to produce it more freely.
The use of "the" to go backwards in the text.
"There was a man outside. The man was tall"
The use of "the" to go forwards in the text.
" I can't find the pen I bought yesterday. "
Outside the text, not the knowledge about the world shared by the writer and reader.
"The moon and the world both go round the sun."
"Where's the cat? (our cat)"
"Paul is in the garden."
The verbal signals given by the listener to indicate interest, attention, surprise etc. "Uh-huh", "Yeah", "Really"
A test employing tasks which replicate real-life activities e.g. role-playing a job interview, writing a letter of complaint, or reading and completing an application form
CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Language Learning)
Using a medium of English to teach a subject such as geography, natural science or history to learners whose first language is not English.
A consonant sound in which the air flow is initially stopped, but is then released slowly with friction. e.g. tʃ
A (new) word created by combining two (or more) words. e.g. brand name, downsize, into
A specific style of text distinguished by specific features. e.g. Formal letters, anecdotes, informal telephone conversations
A verb which is used to describe a condition/state/belief/emotion/possession/sense. e.g. I "know" it's true. I "have" a house
A test taken to assess candidates' language ability independently/regardless of any course of study. e.g. IELTS, FCE, TOEFL
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
EXAM PRACTICE 2
DELTA: Module 1 Methodologies
DELTA Module 1 Features of Genres
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
ESOL Vocabulary Words for Exam
Chapter 12: Language and Literacy