126 terms

Chapter 1 Vocab

Introduction (pgs. 7-40)
STUDY
PLAY
Legitimacy
How regimes maintain their power.
Charismatic, rational-legal, traditional.
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP)
Way to measure purchasing power between countries.
Marketization
Describes the state's re-creation of a market in which property, labor, goods, and services can all function in a competitive environment to determine their value.
Military Rule
System of government where army officers form the government.
Mixed Economies
Economic system combining private and public enterprise.
Mixed Electoral System
Electoral system that combines proportional representation with single-member districts.
Multi-Member Districts
More than one legislative seat is contested in each district; created by a proportional representation.
Multi-Party System
Multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition. The effective number of parties in a multi-party system is normally larger than 2.5.
Nation
Group of people that are bound together by a common political identity.
Nationalism
Sense of belonging and identity that distinguishes one nation from another.
Single-Member Districts
Candidates compete for single representative's seat; also called the plurality system or the winner-take-all system.
Party System
Concept in political science that political parties control government.
Patronage
Political power established by giving out favors and expecting favors in return.
Plebiscite
Direct vote of all the people of a country or district on an important matter; a referendum.
Political Culture
Collection of political beliefs,values,practices,and institutions that the government is based on.
Political Efficacy
Belief that matters - that one's vote can actually make a difference.
Political Elites
Persons with a disproportionate share of political power.
Political Frameworks
Structures of a political system that carry out the work of the governing.
Political Ideologies
Sets of political values held by individuals regarding the basic goals of government and politics.
Political Liberalization
State that progresses from procedural democracy to substantive democracy through democratic consolidation.
Political Socialization
People identify with their nation, ethnic, or class groups, and religions.
Advanced Democracies
Having a well-established democratic Gov. and a high efficient economic development.
Authoritarian Regime
Decisions are made by elites (dictators, monarch, aristocrats, single party), without input from citizens.
Bicameral Legislature
The most common form: has two houses known as upper and lower.
Unicameral Legislature
Has one house.
Bureaucracy
Agencies that execute political policies to improve the state.
Cabinet Coalition
Multi-party system where parties join forces to represent cabinet posts (might be unstable).
Causation
One variable causes/influences another.
Check and Balances
System that the central head of state (President) uses to control the executive branch.
Civil Society
Institutions give voice to groups of society and promote public participation.
Coinciding Cleavages
All disputes create conflicts between same social groups, very explosive.
Cross-Cutting Clevages
Social disputes stay moderate- groups argue on one issue, but cooperate on another.
Command Economies
Supply and price are regulated by the government rather than market forces. Government planners decide which goods and services are produced and how they are distributed.
Common Law/Code Law
Law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action.
Communism
Social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, stateless and revolutionary socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production.
Competitive Elections
When two or more candidates run for an office and the people have the opportunity to vote for whomever they want.
Confederal System
System of government that nations or states agree to join together under a central government, to which the nations or states grant certain powers.
Conflictual Political Culture
Where different groups (or subcultures) clash with opposing beliefs and values.
Consensual Political Culture
Although citizens may disagree on some political processes and policies, they tend generally to agree on how decisions are made.
Conservatism
Political and social philosophy that promotes the maintenance of traditional institutions and supports, at the most, minimal and gradual change in society.
Constitutional Laws
Body of law that defines the relationship of different entities within a state, namely, the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
Co-Optation
To elect as a fellow member of a group.
Party System
Concept in political science that political parties control government.
Revolution of Rising Expectations
Political discontent is generally proceded by a period of relative improvement in the standard of living.
Rule of Law
Provides for equal treatment of citizens and due process.
Semi-Presidential System
Prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by people.
Separation of Powers
Branches of a government share power and one branch does not come to dominate the others.
Politicization of Religion
Idea that religious differences tend to create conflict even among the different governments.
Presidential System
Democratic system in which citizens vote for legislative, representatives, and executive branch leaders, and the two branches function with separation of powers.
Privatization
The transference of state-owned property to private ownership.
Procedural Democracy
Countries that have regular free and fair competitive
elections, but are missing the qualities of civil liberties, rule of law, neutrality of
the judiciary, open civil societies, and civilian control over military. Also know as illiberal democracies.
Proportional Representation
Voters cast their ballots for a party rather than a
candidate, and the percentage of voters a party receives determines how many seats the party will gain in the legislature.
Radicalism
Belief that rapid, dramatic changes need to be made in the existing society often including the political system.
Reactionary Belief
Beliefs that oppose both revolution and reform, and they also find the status quo unacceptable.
Recruitment of Elites
Ways to identify and select people for future leadership positions.
Referendum
National ballot which allows the public to make direct decisions about policy itself.
Reform
A type of change that does not advocate the overthrow of basic institutions.
Empirical Data
Data based or concerned with statistics and factual data.
Fascism
Authoritarian and nationalistic right-wing system of government and social organization.
Federal System
System of government in which several states or sub-units form a unity but remain independent on some internal matters.
First-Past-The-Post
Constituencies divide their seats into single-member districts in which candidates compete for one single representative seat.
Fragmentation
Process of dividing or breaking up into smaller or separate parts.
Freedom House Ratings
Rating given by an organization that studies democracies around the world, ranks countries in a 1 to 7 freedom scale, 1 is most free and 7 is least free.
Gini Index
Mathematical formula that measures the amount of economic inequality in a society.
Globalization
To develop as to make possible international influence.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
All goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year.
Gross National Product (GNP)
All goods and services produced by a country's economy in a given year but also includes the income citizens earned outside the country.
Gross National Product Per Capita (GNP Per Capita)
Divides GNP over population of the country.
Government
Ruling body of a nation, state, or community.
Integration
The intermixing of people or groups previously segregated.
Interest Group Pluralism
Interest group is a organization who have similar beliefs and want similar things.
Judicial Review
Doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review (and possible invalidation) by the judiciary.
Liberal Democracies
Form of representative democracy in which elected representatives who hold power are limited by a constitution that emphasizes protecting individual liberties, equality and the rights of minority groups.
Liberalism as a Political Ideology
An ideology that promotes the freedom of the individual in religious, political, and economic matters.
Liberalism as an Approach to Economic and Political Change
Political and economic doctrine that emphasizes the rights and freedoms of the individual and the need to limit the powers of government.
Linkage Institutions
Structure within a society that connects the people to the government or centralized authority. These institutions include: elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
Market Economies
System where the prices of goods and services are set by supply and demand.
Semi-Presidential System
Democratic system where a prime minister coexists with a president who is directly elected by the people and who holds a significant degree of power.
Separation of Powers
Separation of executive, legislative, and judicial
branches, which ensures that power is shared and that one branch does not come to dominate the others.
Social Boundaries
Certain actions not limited by the natural laws of physics or rules imposed by the established government but considered unpleasant by the
majority of the population.
Social Capital
Amount of reciprocity and trust that exists among citizens, and between citizens and the state.
Social Cleavages
Religion, ethnic groups, race, social and economic classes all interact with the political system and have a tremendous impact on policymaking.
Sovereignty
Quality of having supreme, independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.
Head of State
Role that symbolizes the power and the nature of the regime.
Head of Government
Role that deals with the everyday tasks of running the government.
Hypothesis
Speculative statement about the relationship between two or more factors known as variables.
Independent/Dependent Variable
Influences the dependent variable because its action depends on the influence of the independent variable.
Institutions
Stable, long lasting organizations that help turn political ideas into policy.
Illiberal Democracies
Democracies that are missing the characteristics of a liberal democracy.
Indirect Democracy
Officials representing the people.
Informal Politics
Impact that beliefs, values and actions of ordinary citizens have on policy-making.
Initiative
Vote on a policy that is initiated by the people.
Indications of Democratization
Civil liberties, rule of law, neutrality of the judiciary, open civil society, and civilian control of the military.
Technocrats
Military regime formed a ruling coalition that included military officers and civilian bureaucrats.
"Third Wave" of Democracy
Defeat of dictatorial or totalitarian rulers in
South America, Eastern Europe and Africa.
Third World
Nations that did not fit into the first two categories and were all economically underdeveloped and deprived.
Three World-Approach
Largely based on cold war politics by divining the world into three worlds the united states and its allies the Soviet Union and its allies and the third world is the res of the countries.
Corporatism
Arrangement in which government officials interact with people/groups outside the government before they set policy.
Correlation
When a change in one variable coincides with a change in the other.
Cosmopolitanism
Universal political order that draws its identity and values from everywhere.
Democratic Consolidation
Creation of a stable political system that is supported by all parts of the society.
Direct Democracy
When individuals have immediate say over many decisions that the government makes.
Economic Liberalization
Process of limiting the power of the state
over private property and market forces.
Electoral Systems
Rules that decide how votes are cast, counted,
and translated into seats in legislature.
Elites
Group of people considered to be the best in a particular society or category, especially because of their power, talent, or wealth.
Integration
Intermixing of people or groups previously segregated.
Interest Group Pluralism
Organization who has similar beliefs and want similar things.
Judicial Review
Doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review (and possible invalidation) by the judiciary.
Liberal Democracies
Form of representative democracy in which elected representatives who hold power are limited by a constitution that emphasizes protecting individual liberties, equality and the rights of minority groups.
Liberalism as a Political Ideology
Promotes the freedom of the individual in religious, political, and economic matters.
Liberalism as an Approach to Economic and Political Change
Political and economic doctrine that emphasizes the rights and freedoms of the individual and the need to limit the powers of government.
Linkage Institutions
Structure within a society that connects the people to the government or centralized authority. These institutions include: elections, political parties, interest groups, and the media.
Market Economies
System where the prices of goods and services are set by supply and demand.
Transparency
Refers to the how open a state is to its citizens. I.e. do people have access to finances, decision-making, police documents, etc.
Two-Party System
When a government is dominated by two political parties (i.e . the U.S.).
Transmission Belt
Institution in an authoritarian government that "transmits" its interests to the political elites.
State
Another word for country.
State Corporatism
Institutionalized system of organizations that have formal relationships and influence with/over the govt. Example: Pemex Union.
Substantive Democracy
Democratic system that has many attributes of democracy, civil liberties, human rights, fair judicial system, strong civil society, civilian control of military and police. The opposite of an illiberal or procedural democracy.
Third World
Somewhat outdated term that means a country is relatively poor or developing.
Succession
System by which power is passed within a state from one regime to the next.
Three-World Approach
Idea that there were three different kinds of countries, third-world (poor), second world (communist) first world (rich) somewhat outdated.
Unitary Systems
Strong central government that allows for very little peripheral autonomy.
Tyranny of The Majority
Idea that the interests of minority groups within a state are overrun or disregarded by the majority.
Technocrats
Person that helps the government to function but has no political position. Not based on ideology.
Totalitarianism
Type of government where the state is involved in controlling most aspects of its citizens' lives (different from authoritarianism).