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Origins of French Revolution 1789-1792

Terms in this set (20)

-Joseph's reforms included abolishing serfdom, ending press censorship and limiting the power of the Catholic Church. And with his Edict of Toleration, Joseph gave minority religions, such as Protestants, Greek Orthodox and Jews, the ability to live and worship more freely.
-Enlightened law system
-Made legislature better
- Joseph did not bother to smooth the way with nobles or clergy who felt threatened by his changes.
-Hungarian nobles tried to reject Joseph's decrees on the grounds that he had not gone through an official coronation there. Even peasants were often more concerned with the taxes that the empire demanded than with their new freedoms.
-Joseph also encountered difficulties outside his empire. To counter Prussia's strength, Joseph forged an alliance with Catherine II of Russia, which brought the empire into a conflict in Turkey. This stretched the empire's resources and also opened the door for more unrest.
-Welfare measures benefitted many citizens
-Gave serfs ability to own land and more rights- "Urbanarium" movement (resulted in nobles revolting)
-Proposal to end noble's tax exemption
-Legal reforms introduced, some lasting into twentieth century
-Abolished death penalty yet prison and hard labour were more savage
-Some citizens did not agree with the restructuring of the economy and reduction of status that came with enlightened thinking, therefore the society erupted into Belgian riots (1787-1789)
-Tariffs and taxes were implemented, however this made people revolt
-Religious policies made him resented
-Financial crisis bordered on collapse.
Crisis revolved around the simple financial fact that what the government took in as revenue came nowhere near to servicing the nation's long term obligations.
-Long term causes:
→ result of half a century of ambitious and not always successful foreign policy.
The Seven Years War was nothing short of a struggle for global supremacy between France and Britain. Expensive war. Also participation in American Revolutionary War. Enlargened their debt
→ By 1764, servicing the french debt took 60 percent of the annual budget, three times what it had been a decade earlier.
→ humbled the outlook of french military around the globe
→ Nobles and bourgeoisie generated a lot of money, however gov. couldnt access this money. Wealthy bourgeoisie ennobled themselves to avoid taxation. Complicated taxation system
Necker risen to the post of Director General of Finance in Louis XVIs government. was most effective at raising loans. Extremely popular since it meant revenue was raised with no threat to privilege. Raised revenue without raising taxes. American War could be financed with loans rather than taxes. Was successful for a bit, raised 500 million livres in 4 years 1777-1781. however after americans gained independence, french debt crawled back up to about 4 billion livres 1787 due to war, etc.
Calonne
→ plan included a general land tax, free trade, abolishing all temporary taxes. chief financial minister from 1783-1787. predicament became a political crisis from a financial crisis.