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a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country


an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.


an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit

rule of law

No one is above the law


Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans made


second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; WARRIORS


third level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; identifies merchants who engaged in commerce; COMMONERS


the second lowest of the five castes in the Indian social system and were not twice born; consisted of peasants and artisans which was most of the Indian population


Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders


the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners


defended their lord's land in exchange for fiefs.


men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection


a person of high rank who owned land but owed loyalty to his king


a lord's estate in feudal Europe

three estates

1. First Estate Clergy 1% of pop, 10% of land, 0% of taxes
2. Second estate Nobility 2% of pop, 20% of land, little taxes
3. Third estate Everyone else. All taxed, heavily.

reign of terror

the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed

marie antoinette

queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)

estates general

France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)


educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution


Worker, generally lower class under the Bourgeiose.


The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles


A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.

sans culottes

A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men., in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages, working class people who wore long red and blue striped pants, demanded an end to hunger, poverty, and monarchy

industrial revolution

the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.

free market system

Pure capitalism, in which all economic decisions are made without government intervention.


the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban

war guilt clause

in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers


majority group in rwanda;massacred tutsis


minority group in rwanda;hutus massacred tutsis

human rights

the ability to act without the permission of others

conflict of orders

was a political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of the ancient Roman Republic, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians.


an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic


member of the landholding upper class in ancient Rome


sun is the center


earth is the center

john locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

thomas hobbes

English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)


French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)


believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property


This was a playwright and a philosophe who said that the best that one could hope for in a government is a good monarch and he even often criticized the Catholic Church and government in his plays

louis XVI

- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.


French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.


were people who were a part of the third estate, but did not want extreme change. They believed that it was possible to have a bloodless revolution, and suffer very little with only little reforms.

3 factors of production

land labor capital

crop rotation

The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.

adam smith

Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics

laissez faire

the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs

karl marx

German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.

communist manifesto

a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views

steam engine

external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder

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