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50 terms

World History Midterm Turso

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communism
a political system in which the government owns all property and dominates all aspects of life in a country
socialism
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
capitalism
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
rule of law
No one is above the law
brahmins
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans made
kshatriyas
second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; WARRIORS
vaisyas
third level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; identifies merchants who engaged in commerce; COMMONERS
sudras
the second lowest of the five castes in the Indian social system and were not twice born; consisted of peasants and artisans which was most of the Indian population
plebians
Members of the lower class of Ancient Rome including farmers, merchants, artisans and traders
patricians
the wealthy class in Roman society; landowners
knights
defended their lord's land in exchange for fiefs.
serfs
men of women who were the poorest members of society, peasants who worked the lord's land in exchange for protection
lords
a person of high rank who owned land but owed loyalty to his king
mannor
a lord's estate in feudal Europe
three estates
1. First Estate Clergy 1% of pop, 10% of land, 0% of taxes
2. Second estate Nobility 2% of pop, 20% of land, little taxes
3. Third estate Everyone else. All taxed, heavily.
reign of terror
the period, from mid-1793 to mid-1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
marie antoinette
queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)
estates general
France's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
bourgeoisie
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
proletariet
Worker, generally lower class under the Bourgeiose.
bastille
The political prison and armory stormed on July 14, 1789, by Partisian city workers alarmed by the king's concentration of troops at Versailles
robespierre
A French political leader of the eighteenth century. A Jacobin, he was one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution. He was in charge of the government during the Reign of Terror, when thousands of persons were executed without trial. After a public reaction against his extreme policies, he was executed without trial.
sans culottes
A reference to Parisian workers who wore loose-fitting trousers rather than the tight-fitting breeches worn by aristocratic men., in the French Revolution, a radical group made up of Parisian wage-earners, and small shopkeepers who wanted a greater voice in government, lower prices, and an end of food shortages, working class people who wore long red and blue striped pants, demanded an end to hunger, poverty, and monarchy
industrial revolution
the change from an agricultural to an industrial society and from home manufacturing to factory production, especially the one that took place in England from about 1750 to about 1850.
free market system
Pure capitalism, in which all economic decisions are made without government intervention.
urbanization
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
war guilt clause
in treaty of Versailles; declared germany and austria responsible for WWI; ordered Germany to pay reparation to Allied powers
hutus
majority group in rwanda;massacred tutsis
tutsis
minority group in rwanda;hutus massacred tutsis
human rights
the ability to act without the permission of others
conflict of orders
was a political struggle between the Plebeians (commoners) and Patricians (aristocrats) of the ancient Roman Republic, in which the Plebeians sought political equality with the Patricians.
plebian
an ordinary citizen in the ancient Roman republic
patrician
member of the landholding upper class in ancient Rome
heliocentric
sun is the center
geocentric
earth is the center
john locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
thomas hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
rousseau
believed people in their natural state were basically good but that they were corrupted by the evils of society, especially the uneven distribution of property
voltaire
This was a playwright and a philosophe who said that the best that one could hope for in a government is a good monarch and he even often criticized the Catholic Church and government in his plays
louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
emigres
French nobles who fled from France during the peasant uprisings. They were very conservative and hoped to restore the king to power.
moderates
were people who were a part of the third estate, but did not want extreme change. They believed that it was possible to have a bloodless revolution, and suffer very little with only little reforms.
3 factors of production
land labor capital
crop rotation
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
adam smith
Economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
laissez faire
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
karl marx
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
communist manifesto
a socialist manifesto written by Marx and Engels (1842) describing the history of the working-class movement according to their views
steam engine
external-combustion engine in which heat is used to raise steam which either turns a turbine or forces a piston to move up and down in a cylinder