Stage of the cell cycle when DNA replication occurs
S (synthesis) phase
stage of the cell cycle between DN?A synthesis and mitosis. The cell continues to grow and produce new proteins. the energy acquired at this stage is used for cell division
chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope dissolves, centrioles divide and migrate, spindle fibers form, chromosomes begin to move to the equator
chromosomes (chromatids held together by a centromere) migrate to the equator of the spindle, where the spindle fibers are attached to the centromeres connecting them to the poles. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared
centromeres split apart and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the spindle
chromosomes reach the poles, the nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes uncoli into chromatin and the nucleolus reforms
What stages does interphase encompass?
G1, S, G2
proteins whose levels rise and fall within the cell as cells pass through the stages of the cell cycle
when activated by binding cyclins, add phosphate groups to proteins controlling cell cycle processes
cyclin-dependent kinases (Calks)
proteins that trigger the events which allow sister chromatids to separate, and degrade mitotic cyclins
Anaphase-promoting complex (APC)
protein that senses DNA damage and halts progression of the cell cycle in G1, and is also a key player in apoptosis
how do you tell a differentiated plant cell from an undifferentiated one?
they have a vacuole
a class of plant hormone that they use to regulate growth
small proteins produced within the human body that regulate cell growth, cell specialization as well as control metabolic processes
epithelial cells with a secretory function
epithelial cells that form the walls of small ducts
epithelial cells that are very flat, permitting diffusion of molecules across membranes
First developmental stage of language acquisition, in which student uses first language only, only communicating with others that speak this language. What should you do?
home language, pair students with students speaking both languages
Second developmental stage of language acquisition in which student does not participate and speaks very seldome, even in their home language. Student is ___ and ____ language, making mental connections between the new language and their home language (translating in his/her mind). What should you do?
Silent period, listening, absorbing, student is listening/ paying attention
Third developmental stage of language acquisition in which student speaks like a caveman or infant, in one or two word statements that represent a need. What should you do?
Formulaic speech, provide vocabulary acquisition assistance
Fourth developmental stage of language acquisition in which student can converse about everyday things, can ask for things he/she needs, and is easily mistaken as fully fluent. What should you do?
Social language, keep building vocabulary
Fifth developmental stage of language acquisition in which student can read and understand second language, including academic and abstract concepts
transformations of matter from one state to another
what is sublimation?
passing from solid to gas without going though liquid
The melting process for a solid is also referred to as ___. The enthalpy change associated with melting a solid is often called the ___
fusion, heat of fusion
a phase change in which no heat exchange occurs
a phase change in which the temperature of the system remains constant
the highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid
the pressure required to bring about condensation at the critical temperature
the measurement of heat changes associated with a process
instrument used to measure the heat of reaction
calorimetry performed at a constant volume
What does the change in heat represent in a constant-volume calorimeter?
change in internal energy of the system
What does the change in heat represent in a constant-pressure calorimeter?
the enthalpy change
the total energy of a thermodynamic system
the heat capacity of 1 gram of a substance
the heat capacity of 1 mol of a substance
molar heat capacity
What is the difference between temperature and heat?
Heat represents both kinetic and potential energy and can either cause an increase in temperature or in phase change, but temperature is just a measure of the kinetic energy in a system.
How do you determine the specific heat of a substance?
q=mc<>T or heat capacity C * <>T
How do you find the entropy of a system?
<>S=<>H/T (Joules/Kelvin, calories/Kelvin)
Give the Gibbs free energy equation.
If Gibbs energy is positive the reaction is ___ and if Gibbs energy is negative the reaction is ___
the belief that all earthly changes were sudden and caused by a series of catastrophes
the idea that the present is the key to the past, assuming that both gradual and catastrophic process acting on the Earth today are the same as those that have acted in the past
What were the land masses on Gondwana?
Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, South America, Africa, India
What percentage of the Earth's surface is covered in water?
Where did water come from
emissions of ancient volcanoes, comet snockballs (snow and rock)
How long has water been in existence?
3.8 billion years
What did the atmosphere originally consist of?
carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, nitrogen and hydrogen
Where did O2 come from?
one billion ya blue-green algae underwent photosynthesis
Where did ozone (O3) come from?
Some O2 molecules were split by the Sun's UV rays to form single O atoms that combined with O2
Why could life move out of the ocean?
600 mya, UV radiation began being shielded by a large enough supply of O3
Explain the use of correlation to fill in unconformities?
Breaks in the rock record can be filled in by looking at rocks elsewhere
name of the principle stating that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks, the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom
the dating of past events through study of tree ring growth
the period in which most of the Ice Ages occurred. What are the dates of this time?
Pleiostocene epoch, 1.8 mya -10,000 ya
extinction that killed the dinosaurs, among other organisms, and when was it?
Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, 65 mya
Earth's worst mass extinction, killing 95 percent of all species
Permian-Triassic extinction 251 mya
when did the first creeping lichens and bryophytes move onto land?
most of the rocks exposed at the surface of Earth
Order of divisions of time?
Eon, Era, Period, Epoch
gravel becomes the sedimentary rock ___
sand becomes the sedimentary rock
mud becomes the sedimentary rock
shale or mudstone
preservation like insects or plant parts trapped in amber, a hardened form of tree sap
preservation in which rock-like minerals seep in slowly and replace the original organic tissues with silica, calcite, or pyrite, forming a rock-like fossil that preserves hard and soft parts. Most bone and wood fossils are this
preservation in which only the carbon remains in the specimen; other elements, like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are removed
pervation in which hard parts either revert to more stable minerals or small crystals turn into larger crystals
preservation which leavels molds and casts or destroyed or dissolved organisms
___ are important since they are found after detailed studies of rocks from many places reveal that these fossils have a short, well-known time of existence.
What is a constellation?
a pattern of stars that resembles something
The star used for navigation, as well as the constellation
Polaris, Ursa Minor
greek scientist who published the book on stars known as The Almagest
scientist credited with the origin of the Big Bang theory
what is the speed of light?
The Earth and other planets orbit the sun ___ and the Earth spins ___ in its axis
why don't eclipses happen every month?
the moon's orbit is tilted at 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and instead only happen when the moon crosses the ecliptic
stars that are always visible and that revolve around ___ in a ___ direction are called ___. They take about ___ to make a complete revolution.
Polaris, counterclockwise, circumpolar, 24 hours
stars that seem to rise and set in the southern part of the sky. They seem to rise and set because ___
seasonal stars; Earth covers part of their path around Polaris
What is the Zodiac?
the band of sky within 8 degrees of the ecliptic
Which planets are in the Zodiac, staying within 8 degrees of the ecliptic?
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn
Which planets loop backwards for a few weeks before resuming steady motion?
What is an AU?
Astronomical Unit, the distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun, 1.496x10^11m
What is a light year?
the distance light travels in one year through a vacuum, 9.46x10^15m
a process in which cells burst because they have been placed in a hypotonic environment
Chloroplasts contain ___ in which chlorophyll and other pigments are arranged in groups called ___
Light reaction of photosynthesis
H20 --> O2 + ATP + NADPH2
type of chlorophyll that absorbs light and excites the electrons
movement of H+ ions down their gradient to generate ATP
what sugar is attached to the adenine in ATP
What is the Calvin cycle
CO2 and ATP are used to form sugar
where do the dark reactions take place in a chloroplast?
what is the reaction for the dark reaction of photosynthesis?
ATP + NADPH2 + CO2 --> C6H12O6
What is the first step in cellular respiration?
glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvic acid
where does glycolysis occur?
After glycolysis, what happens in cellular respiration?
pyruvic acid is transported across the mitochondrion and is converted to Acetyl Coenzyme A, which enters the Krebs cycle
What happens in the Krebs cycle?
acetyl Coenzyme A is oxidized.
What happens after the Krebs cycle?
protons flow down the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation, in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This produces ATP.
How many ATP molecules are generated via glycolysis? Via the total aerobic respiration?
what organisms do alcoholic fermentation and what are the results?
yeast, some bacteria, generate ethanol, carbon dioxide and water - impt in bread making, brewing, wine making
what organisms do lactic acid fermentation and what are the results?
some bacteria, as wel as muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. Bacteria convert lactose into lactic acid in yogurt
the most damaging effect of fire is ___
How have volcanic eruptions led to global cooling?
large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere producing cooling
What percentage of our nationwide water demand is agricultural irrigation?
What is the main industrial source of air pollution?
metallurgy, delivers sulfur dioxide and very toxic dust, containing various heavy metals
what is the most toxic form of mercury?
why does ozone depletion occur?
release of chlorofluorocarbons (from aerosol cans, colling systems, and refrigeration equipment)
How hot is the surface of the sun?
How hot is the core of the sun?
15.6 million degrees
How big is the sun?
one million Earths
About how fast does the Sun rotate?
27 days (at Equator, 30 at 40* N/S)
What is the diameter of the sun?
What is the mass of the sun?
What is the composition of the sun?
Mostly hydrogen (70%), helium (28%), other elements (2%)
What color is the sun?
How far is it from the Earth to the Sun?
149.6 billion km
the outermost part of the sun
what is beneath the corona of the sun?
where does the Sun's visible light come from?
what is beneath the chromosphere of the sun?
What is beneath the photosphere of the sun?
where in the sun is hydrogen transformed into helium?
what is above the core of the sun and is the place where photons from the nuclear reactions are absorbed and reemitted?
part of the sun where circulating currents of gas transfer it to the surface
Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 1?
Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 2?
Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 3?
Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 4?
Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 5?
Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 6?
Planets that are rich in heavier gases and gaseous compounds, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, and argon
planets that are composed mostly of hydrogen and helium
What is Venus mostly composed of?
carbon dioxide, with some amounts of nitrogen, helium, neon, argon
What is Mars' atmosphere composed of?
a thin layer of carbon dioxide, with nitrogen, argon, oxygen and water vapor
What is Jupiter's atmosphere composed of?
helium and hydrogen, with trace amounts of water, ammonia, methane, other carbon compounds
What is the lowest layer of cloud in Jupiter?
water ice or droplets
what is the middle layer of cloud in Jupiter?
ammonia and hydrogen sulfide crystals
what is the highest layer of cloud in Jupiter?
What is Jupiter made of?
a transition from gas to liquid metallic hydrogen where in the top 1/4 of the planet, pressure and temperature strip hydrogen of their outer electrons forming a liquid metal
What is Saturn made of?
hydrogen and helium, and the ratio decreases with depth, as well as methane and ammonia, with a layer of metallic hydrogen
What is Uranus composed of?
hydrogen and minor helium, methane
Why do Uranus and Neptune appear blue?
methane absorbs light of other wavelengths
What is Neptune's atmosphere composed of?
hydrogen and helium, but 2.5-3% methane
what are clouds on Uranus and Neptune composed of?
What is Pluto's atmosphere composed of?
nitrogen and carbon dioxide
What is the hottest planet in our solar system?
How many moons does Jupiter have?
What color is Mercury?
What color is Venus?
What color is Mars?
How many moons does Mars have?
What color is Jupiter?
bands of white, yellow, red, brown clouds
What color is Saturn?
What color is Uranus?
How many moons does Saturn have?
at least 20
How many satellites does Uranus have?
How many rings does Uranus have?
What color is Neptune?
How many rings does Neptune have?
How many moons does Neptune have?
How many moons does Pluto have?
relatively small rocky objects that orbit the Sun
Why isn't Pluto a planet?
It has too much mass around it's orbit that hasn't become part of it's body. It's a pygmy planet instead.
What is the largest known asteroid?
chunks of ice and rock in space
Why do comets have heads and tails?
ice vaporizing near the sun
How often does Halley's comet reappear?
every 75 years
particles of dust and rock derived from comets as they orbit the Sun
when does a meteoroid become a meteor?
when it enters Earth's atmosphere
what is a shooting star?
when do meteor showers appear?
when Earth passes through bands of comet debris
when does a meteor become a meteorite?
when it makes it to Earth's surface
Which way does the force keeping us in orbit point?
towards the sun
How do you find the slope of a line?
vector for change in position
motion in which no forces are acting
uniform motion (like constant velocity)
speed changes at a constant rate
What are the motion equations?
a=(vf-vi)/t s=1/2 (vf+vi) x t vf^2=vi^2 +2as
the path of a projectile in free fall
How do you find centripetal acceleration?
ac = v^2/r
the motion of a body about an internal axis
the motion of objects as they travel in a circle
uniform circular motion
Principle that says that a change in the pressure applied to an enclosed container is transmitted without change through the fluid and acts in all directions (hydraulic pump)
Principle that says that a body immersed in a fluid will be buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid that it displaces (bathtub full of water)
The pressure in a fluid decreases with increased velocity of the fluid (air moves around the wings on airplane providing lift)
Why does a balloon stick to a wall?
Rubbing the balloon gives it a negative charge on that side that causes the balloon to push away negative ions in the neutral wall making the wall seem positive so they attract.
What is an electroscope and how does it work?
detects charges by acting as a conductor and using the charge to move the needle away from the upright support that is the same charge
what is the SI unit for current?
what is current?
how much charge flows in a unit of time
what is the SI unit for resistance?
What is the formula for figuring out electrical resistance?
R = V/I (R is resistance, v is Voltage, I is current)
What is an Ohm?
The resistance value through which one volt will maintain a current of one ampere
what is electrical resistivity?
indicates how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current
How do you find resistivity?
P=RA/L (P is resistivity, R is resistance, A is area, L is length), measured in Ohm meters
How do you find conductivity?
inverse of resistivity (1/p); the extent to which an object conducts current
What is Hardy Weinberg model?
In large populations in the absence of gene flow, mutation, genetic drift and natural selection with individual mating, genotype and allele frequencies stay the same.
natural selection that leads to a median phenotype
natural selection that favors one extreme over another
natural selection that favors extremes over heterozygotes
What is capacitance?
the amount of charge a capacitor can hold at one time, measured in farads
How do you find capacitance?
C = q/V (Capacitance is charge/Voltage)
speciation due to geographical isolation
speciation due to reproductive isolation
the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage
occurs when related but distinct species of organisms mate at different times of day
occurws when related but distinct species or organisms exploit different habitats and resources
occurs when related but distinct species of organisms are blind to reproductive signals in each other
ethological or behavioral isolation
hybrid fertilization occurs but the embryo is not viable
structures that have similar embryonic origins
structures that have similar function, but not origin
era in which life began
era when first vertebrates appeared
Period in which the first corals and primitive fish appeared
period in which plants made it to land
Era known as the Age of the Dinosaurs
First dinosaurs, pterosaurs, lizards, mammals, maybe birds evolved in this period
Extinction of dinosaurs happened in this period
First mammals in this era
First mammals in this Period
Humans have begun in this period
theory of evolution which postulates that changes such as speciation can occur very quickly, with long periods of little change in between
mutations that occur in gametes and can be passed on to offspring
mutations that occur in non-reproductive cells and cannot be passed onto the offspring
what is chimera?
How do you add resistors in series?
How do you add resistors in parallel?
add inverse (1/R)
the failure of homologous chromosomes or chromatids to segregate during mitosis or meiosis
genetic disorder in which women have only one X chromosome
Men with two X chromosomes
an area or stock of water for which inflows and outflows can be identified
How much salt is in brackish water?
0.5 to 30 ppt
How much salt is in sea water?
Is cold or warm water denser?
Is salty or fresh water denser?
when precipitation seeps into the ground
measuring light scattered at 90* to the incident light for maximum sensitivity to small particles which cause cloudiness in drinking water
how do you measure the amount of nitrogen in water?
convert it all to nitrate and use colorimetry
what things do the instruments that measure salinity take into account?