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mitotic phase of the cell cycle

M phase

phase of the cell cycle when cytokinesis occurs

G1 phase

Stage of the cell cycle when DNA replication occurs

S (synthesis) phase

stage of the cell cycle between DN?A synthesis and mitosis. The cell continues to grow and produce new proteins. the energy acquired at this stage is used for cell division

G2 phase

Describe prophase

chromatin condenses, nuclear envelope dissolves, centrioles divide and migrate, spindle fibers form, chromosomes begin to move to the equator

Describe metaphase

chromosomes (chromatids held together by a centromere) migrate to the equator of the spindle, where the spindle fibers are attached to the centromeres connecting them to the poles. The nuclear membrane and nucleolus have disappeared

Describe anaphase

centromeres split apart and chromosomes are pulled to opposite poles of the spindle

Describe telophase

chromosomes reach the poles, the nuclear envelope reforms, chromosomes uncoli into chromatin and the nucleolus reforms

What stages does interphase encompass?

G1, S, G2

proteins whose levels rise and fall within the cell as cells pass through the stages of the cell cycle


when activated by binding cyclins, add phosphate groups to proteins controlling cell cycle processes

cyclin-dependent kinases (Calks)

proteins that trigger the events which allow sister chromatids to separate, and degrade mitotic cyclins

Anaphase-promoting complex (APC)

protein that senses DNA damage and halts progression of the cell cycle in G1, and is also a key player in apoptosis

p53 protein

how do you tell a differentiated plant cell from an undifferentiated one?

they have a vacuole

a class of plant hormone that they use to regulate growth


small proteins produced within the human body that regulate cell growth, cell specialization as well as control metabolic processes

growth factors

epithelial cells with a secretory function


epithelial cells that form the walls of small ducts


epithelial cells that are very flat, permitting diffusion of molecules across membranes


First developmental stage of language acquisition, in which student uses first language only, only communicating with others that speak this language. What should you do?

home language, pair students with students speaking both languages

Second developmental stage of language acquisition in which student does not participate and speaks very seldome, even in their home language. Student is ___ and ____ language, making mental connections between the new language and their home language (translating in his/her mind). What should you do?

Silent period, listening, absorbing, student is listening/ paying attention

Third developmental stage of language acquisition in which student speaks like a caveman or infant, in one or two word statements that represent a need. What should you do?

Formulaic speech, provide vocabulary acquisition assistance

Fourth developmental stage of language acquisition in which student can converse about everyday things, can ask for things he/she needs, and is easily mistaken as fully fluent. What should you do?

Social language, keep building vocabulary

Fifth developmental stage of language acquisition in which student can read and understand second language, including academic and abstract concepts

academic language

transformations of matter from one state to another

phase transitions

what is sublimation?

passing from solid to gas without going though liquid

The melting process for a solid is also referred to as ___. The enthalpy change associated with melting a solid is often called the ___

fusion, heat of fusion

a phase change in which no heat exchange occurs

adiabatic process

a phase change in which the temperature of the system remains constant

isothermal process

the highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid

critical temperature

the pressure required to bring about condensation at the critical temperature

critical pressure

the measurement of heat changes associated with a process


instrument used to measure the heat of reaction


calorimetry performed at a constant volume

constant-volume calorimetry

What does the change in heat represent in a constant-volume calorimeter?

change in internal energy of the system

What does the change in heat represent in a constant-pressure calorimeter?

the enthalpy change

the total energy of a thermodynamic system


the heat capacity of 1 gram of a substance

specific heat

the heat capacity of 1 mol of a substance

molar heat capacity

What is the difference between temperature and heat?

Heat represents both kinetic and potential energy and can either cause an increase in temperature or in phase change, but temperature is just a measure of the kinetic energy in a system.

How do you determine the specific heat of a substance?

q=mc<>T or heat capacity C * <>T

How do you find the entropy of a system?

<>S=<>H/T (Joules/Kelvin, calories/Kelvin)

Give the Gibbs free energy equation.


If Gibbs energy is positive the reaction is ___ and if Gibbs energy is negative the reaction is ___

non-spontaneous (make reactants), spontaneous (make products)

the belief that all earthly changes were sudden and caused by a series of catastrophes


the idea that the present is the key to the past, assuming that both gradual and catastrophic process acting on the Earth today are the same as those that have acted in the past


What were the land masses on Gondwana?

Antarctica, Australia, New Zealand, South America, Africa, India

What percentage of the Earth's surface is covered in water?


Where did water come from

emissions of ancient volcanoes, comet snockballs (snow and rock)

How long has water been in existence?

3.8 billion years

What did the atmosphere originally consist of?

carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, water, nitrogen and hydrogen

Where did O2 come from?

one billion ya blue-green algae underwent photosynthesis

Where did ozone (O3) come from?

Some O2 molecules were split by the Sun's UV rays to form single O atoms that combined with O2

Why could life move out of the ocean?

600 mya, UV radiation began being shielded by a large enough supply of O3

Explain the use of correlation to fill in unconformities?

Breaks in the rock record can be filled in by looking at rocks elsewhere

name of the principle stating that in an undisturbed horizontal sequence of rocks, the oldest rock layers will be on the bottom


the dating of past events through study of tree ring growth


the period in which most of the Ice Ages occurred. What are the dates of this time?

Pleiostocene epoch, 1.8 mya -10,000 ya

extinction that killed the dinosaurs, among other organisms, and when was it?

Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction, 65 mya

Earth's worst mass extinction, killing 95 percent of all species

Permian-Triassic extinction 251 mya

when did the first creeping lichens and bryophytes move onto land?


most of the rocks exposed at the surface of Earth


Order of divisions of time?

Eon, Era, Period, Epoch

gravel becomes the sedimentary rock ___


sand becomes the sedimentary rock


mud becomes the sedimentary rock

shale or mudstone

preservation like insects or plant parts trapped in amber, a hardened form of tree sap

unaltered preservation

preservation in which rock-like minerals seep in slowly and replace the original organic tissues with silica, calcite, or pyrite, forming a rock-like fossil that preserves hard and soft parts. Most bone and wood fossils are this

permineralization, petrification

preservation in which only the carbon remains in the specimen; other elements, like hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen are removed

carbonization, coalification

pervation in which hard parts either revert to more stable minerals or small crystals turn into larger crystals


preservation which leavels molds and casts or destroyed or dissolved organisms

authigenic preservation

___ are important since they are found after detailed studies of rocks from many places reveal that these fossils have a short, well-known time of existence.

Index fossils

What is a constellation?

a pattern of stars that resembles something

The star used for navigation, as well as the constellation

Polaris, Ursa Minor

greek scientist who published the book on stars known as The Almagest


scientist credited with the origin of the Big Bang theory

Edwin Hubble

what is the speed of light?

300,000 km/s

The Earth and other planets orbit the sun ___ and the Earth spins ___ in its axis

counterclockwise, counterclockwise

why don't eclipses happen every month?

the moon's orbit is tilted at 5 degrees to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and instead only happen when the moon crosses the ecliptic

stars that are always visible and that revolve around ___ in a ___ direction are called ___. They take about ___ to make a complete revolution.

Polaris, counterclockwise, circumpolar, 24 hours

stars that seem to rise and set in the southern part of the sky. They seem to rise and set because ___

seasonal stars; Earth covers part of their path around Polaris

What is the Zodiac?

the band of sky within 8 degrees of the ecliptic

Which planets are in the Zodiac, staying within 8 degrees of the ecliptic?

Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn

Which planets loop backwards for a few weeks before resuming steady motion?

Uranus, Neptune

What is an AU?

Astronomical Unit, the distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun, 1.496x10^11m

What is a light year?

the distance light travels in one year through a vacuum, 9.46x10^15m

a process in which cells burst because they have been placed in a hypotonic environment


Chloroplasts contain ___ in which chlorophyll and other pigments are arranged in groups called ___

thylakoids, photosystems

Light reaction of photosynthesis

H20 --> O2 + ATP + NADPH2

type of chlorophyll that absorbs light and excites the electrons

chlorophyll a

movement of H+ ions down their gradient to generate ATP


what sugar is attached to the adenine in ATP


What is the Calvin cycle

CO2 and ATP are used to form sugar

where do the dark reactions take place in a chloroplast?


what is the reaction for the dark reaction of photosynthesis?

ATP + NADPH2 + CO2 --> C6H12O6

What is the first step in cellular respiration?

glycolysis breaks down glucose into pyruvic acid

where does glycolysis occur?


After glycolysis, what happens in cellular respiration?

pyruvic acid is transported across the mitochondrion and is converted to Acetyl Coenzyme A, which enters the Krebs cycle

What happens in the Krebs cycle?

acetyl Coenzyme A is oxidized.

What happens after the Krebs cycle?

protons flow down the electron transport chain in oxidative phosphorylation, in the inner membrane of the mitochondrion. This produces ATP.

How many ATP molecules are generated via glycolysis? Via the total aerobic respiration?

2, 38

what organisms do alcoholic fermentation and what are the results?

yeast, some bacteria, generate ethanol, carbon dioxide and water - impt in bread making, brewing, wine making

what organisms do lactic acid fermentation and what are the results?

some bacteria, as wel as muscles of animals when they need energy faster than the blood can supply oxygen. Bacteria convert lactose into lactic acid in yogurt

the most damaging effect of fire is ___


How have volcanic eruptions led to global cooling?

large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere producing cooling

What percentage of our nationwide water demand is agricultural irrigation?


What is the main industrial source of air pollution?

metallurgy, delivers sulfur dioxide and very toxic dust, containing various heavy metals

what is the most toxic form of mercury?


why does ozone depletion occur?

release of chlorofluorocarbons (from aerosol cans, colling systems, and refrigeration equipment)

How hot is the surface of the sun?

5500 *C

How hot is the core of the sun?

15.6 million degrees

How big is the sun?

one million Earths

About how fast does the Sun rotate?

27 days (at Equator, 30 at 40* N/S)

What is the diameter of the sun?

1,390,000 km

What is the mass of the sun?

1.989x10^30 kg

What is the composition of the sun?

Mostly hydrogen (70%), helium (28%), other elements (2%)

What color is the sun?


How far is it from the Earth to the Sun?

149.6 billion km

the outermost part of the sun


what is beneath the corona of the sun?


where does the Sun's visible light come from?


what is beneath the chromosphere of the sun?


What is beneath the photosphere of the sun?


where in the sun is hydrogen transformed into helium?


what is above the core of the sun and is the place where photons from the nuclear reactions are absorbed and reemitted?

radiation zone

part of the sun where circulating currents of gas transfer it to the surface

convection zone

Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 1?


Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 2?


Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 3?

convection zone

Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 4?

radiation zone

Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 5?


Open the Sun diagram in pictures. What is part 6?


Planets that are rich in heavier gases and gaseous compounds, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, ozone, and argon

terrestrial planets

planets that are composed mostly of hydrogen and helium

gas giant

What is Venus mostly composed of?

carbon dioxide, with some amounts of nitrogen, helium, neon, argon

What is Mars' atmosphere composed of?

a thin layer of carbon dioxide, with nitrogen, argon, oxygen and water vapor

What is Jupiter's atmosphere composed of?

helium and hydrogen, with trace amounts of water, ammonia, methane, other carbon compounds

What is the lowest layer of cloud in Jupiter?

water ice or droplets

what is the middle layer of cloud in Jupiter?

ammonia and hydrogen sulfide crystals

what is the highest layer of cloud in Jupiter?

ammonia ice

What is Jupiter made of?

a transition from gas to liquid metallic hydrogen where in the top 1/4 of the planet, pressure and temperature strip hydrogen of their outer electrons forming a liquid metal

What is Saturn made of?

hydrogen and helium, and the ratio decreases with depth, as well as methane and ammonia, with a layer of metallic hydrogen

What is Uranus composed of?

hydrogen and minor helium, methane

Why do Uranus and Neptune appear blue?

methane absorbs light of other wavelengths

What is Neptune's atmosphere composed of?

hydrogen and helium, but 2.5-3% methane

what are clouds on Uranus and Neptune composed of?


What is Pluto's atmosphere composed of?

nitrogen and carbon dioxide

What is the hottest planet in our solar system?


How many moons does Jupiter have?


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