38 terms

Genetics Chapter 1

Into to Genetics
posits that an organism is derived from substances present in the egg that differentiate into adult structures during embryonic development
sex cells contain a complete miniature adult perfect in every form
miniature adult perfect in every form
spontaneous generation
creation of living organisms from nonliving components
Louis Pasteur
spontaneous generation
fixity of species
animal and plant groups have remained unchanged in form since the moment of their appearance on Earth
natural selection
populations tend to consist of more offspring then the environment can support, leading to a struggle for survival among them , heritable traits allow them to survive and reproduce passing traits to future generations
diploid number (2n)
members of a species have a characteristic number of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes in diploid cells exist in pairs
chromosomes are copied and distributed so that each daughter cell receives a diploid set of chromosomes
gamete formation
haploid number (n)
cells produced by meiosis receive only one chromosome from each chromosome pair
chromosome theory of inheritance
inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes faithfully transmitted through gametes maintaining genetic continuity from generation to generation
variation produced by one gene
alternative forms of a gene
observable traits
set of alleles for a given trait carried by an organism
bacteriophages (phages)
viruses that attack bacteria
linear polymer subunits making up stands of the helix
RNA molecule transcribed from DNa and translated into amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
ribonuleoprotein organelle consisting of two subunits, each containing RNA and protein molcules
the derivation of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide from the base sequence of an mRNA molecule in association w a ribosome and tRNAs
genetic code
information encoded in mRNA, consists of nucleotide triplets
triplets of nucleotides
adapter molecules that aids protein assembly
biological catalysts, cause biochemical reactions to proceed at rates necessary for sustaining life
identical molecules, cells or organisms derived from a single ancestor by asexuel, or parasexual methods
in recombinant DNA , an agent such as a phage or plasmid into which a foreign DNA segment will be inserted and used to transform host cells
complete haploid
content of DNA specific to that organism
use of modified organisms or their products
golden rice
genetically engineered strain of rice that has high levels of two compounds that the body converts to vitamin A
transgenic animals
animals injected with human genes
microarrays/DNA chips
ordered arrangement of DNA sequences or oligonuelcotides on a substrate
study of genomes
identifies set of proteins present in a cell under a given set of conditions and additionally studies the post-translational modification of these proteins, location within the cell, and protein interactions occurring in the cell
hardware development and software processing storing and retrieving nucleotide and protein data
model organisms
well-characterized genetics and easy manipulated experimentally
set of hereditary info. encoded in the DNA of an organism, both the protein-codeing and non-protein-coding sequence