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Into to Genetics


posits that an organism is derived from substances present in the egg that differentiate into adult structures during embryonic development


sex cells contain a complete miniature adult perfect in every form


miniature adult perfect in every form

spontaneous generation

creation of living organisms from nonliving components

Louis Pasteur

spontaneous generation

fixity of species

animal and plant groups have remained unchanged in form since the moment of their appearance on Earth

natural selection

populations tend to consist of more offspring then the environment can support, leading to a struggle for survival among them , heritable traits allow them to survive and reproduce passing traits to future generations

diploid number (2n)

members of a species have a characteristic number of chromosomes

homologous chromosomes

chromosomes in diploid cells exist in pairs


chromosomes are copied and distributed so that each daughter cell receives a diploid set of chromosomes


gamete formation

haploid number (n)

cells produced by meiosis receive only one chromosome from each chromosome pair

chromosome theory of inheritance

inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes faithfully transmitted through gametes maintaining genetic continuity from generation to generation


variation produced by one gene


alternative forms of a gene


observable traits


set of alleles for a given trait carried by an organism

bacteriophages (phages)

viruses that attack bacteria


linear polymer subunits making up stands of the helix


RNA molecule transcribed from DNa and translated into amino acid sequence of a polypeptide


ribonuleoprotein organelle consisting of two subunits, each containing RNA and protein molcules


the derivation of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide from the base sequence of an mRNA molecule in association w a ribosome and tRNAs

genetic code

information encoded in mRNA, consists of nucleotide triplets


triplets of nucleotides


adapter molecules that aids protein assembly


biological catalysts, cause biochemical reactions to proceed at rates necessary for sustaining life


identical molecules, cells or organisms derived from a single ancestor by asexuel, or parasexual methods


in recombinant DNA , an agent such as a phage or plasmid into which a foreign DNA segment will be inserted and used to transform host cells

complete haploid

content of DNA specific to that organism


use of modified organisms or their products

golden rice

genetically engineered strain of rice that has high levels of two compounds that the body converts to vitamin A

transgenic animals

animals injected with human genes

microarrays/DNA chips

ordered arrangement of DNA sequences or oligonuelcotides on a substrate


study of genomes


identifies set of proteins present in a cell under a given set of conditions and additionally studies the post-translational modification of these proteins, location within the cell, and protein interactions occurring in the cell


hardware development and software processing storing and retrieving nucleotide and protein data

model organisms

well-characterized genetics and easy manipulated experimentally


set of hereditary info. encoded in the DNA of an organism, both the protein-codeing and non-protein-coding sequence

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