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38 terms

Genetics Chapter 1

Into to Genetics
STUDY
PLAY
epigenesis
posits that an organism is derived from substances present in the egg that differentiate into adult structures during embryonic development
performation
sex cells contain a complete miniature adult perfect in every form
homunculus
miniature adult perfect in every form
spontaneous generation
creation of living organisms from nonliving components
Louis Pasteur
spontaneous generation
fixity of species
animal and plant groups have remained unchanged in form since the moment of their appearance on Earth
natural selection
populations tend to consist of more offspring then the environment can support, leading to a struggle for survival among them , heritable traits allow them to survive and reproduce passing traits to future generations
diploid number (2n)
members of a species have a characteristic number of chromosomes
homologous chromosomes
chromosomes in diploid cells exist in pairs
mitosis
chromosomes are copied and distributed so that each daughter cell receives a diploid set of chromosomes
meiosis
gamete formation
haploid number (n)
cells produced by meiosis receive only one chromosome from each chromosome pair
chromosome theory of inheritance
inherited traits are controlled by genes residing on chromosomes faithfully transmitted through gametes maintaining genetic continuity from generation to generation
mutation
variation produced by one gene
allele
alternative forms of a gene
phenotype
observable traits
genotype
set of alleles for a given trait carried by an organism
bacteriophages (phages)
viruses that attack bacteria
nucleotides
linear polymer subunits making up stands of the helix
mRNA
RNA molecule transcribed from DNa and translated into amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
ribosome
ribonuleoprotein organelle consisting of two subunits, each containing RNA and protein molcules
translation
the derivation of the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide from the base sequence of an mRNA molecule in association w a ribosome and tRNAs
genetic code
information encoded in mRNA, consists of nucleotide triplets
codon
triplets of nucleotides
tRNA
adapter molecules that aids protein assembly
enzymes
biological catalysts, cause biochemical reactions to proceed at rates necessary for sustaining life
clones
identical molecules, cells or organisms derived from a single ancestor by asexuel, or parasexual methods
vectors
in recombinant DNA , an agent such as a phage or plasmid into which a foreign DNA segment will be inserted and used to transform host cells
complete haploid
content of DNA specific to that organism
biotechnology
use of modified organisms or their products
golden rice
genetically engineered strain of rice that has high levels of two compounds that the body converts to vitamin A
transgenic animals
animals injected with human genes
microarrays/DNA chips
ordered arrangement of DNA sequences or oligonuelcotides on a substrate
genomics
study of genomes
protenomics
identifies set of proteins present in a cell under a given set of conditions and additionally studies the post-translational modification of these proteins, location within the cell, and protein interactions occurring in the cell
bioinformatics
hardware development and software processing storing and retrieving nucleotide and protein data
model organisms
well-characterized genetics and easy manipulated experimentally
genome
set of hereditary info. encoded in the DNA of an organism, both the protein-codeing and non-protein-coding sequence