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38 terms

AP Human Geo Chapter 3

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Cyclic movement
movement involving shorter periods away from home
periodic movement
movement involving longer periods away from home
migration
movement with a sense of greater permanence
activity spaces
regular sequence of cyclic movement within a local area
nomadism
form of cyclic movement that involves change in location according to seasons and survival needs
migrant labor
type of periodic movement that involves workers
transhumance
system of pastoral farming in which ranchers move livestock according to the seasonal availability of pastures
military service
form of periodic movement
international migration
movement across country borders, also called transnational migration
immigration
arrival of immigrants to a country, adding to its total population
internal migration
migration that occurs within a single country's borders
forced migration
involves the imposition of authority or power, producing involuntary migration movements that cannot be understood based on theories of choice
voluntary migration
occurs after a migrant weighs options and choices, can be analyzed and understood as a series of options
gravity model
predicts interaction between places on the basis of their population size and distance between them
push factors
conditions and perceptions that cause a migrant to decide to leave a place
pull factors
circumstances that effectively attract migrants from other places
distance decay
prospective migrants are more likely to have more complete perceptions of nearer places than of farther ones, which confirms the notion that the intensity of human activity, p process, or function declines as distance from source increases
step migration
migration streams that appear on maps as large, unbroken routes that are really a series of stages
intervening opportunity
additional pull factor that pulls a migrant away from his original destination
deportation
forcibly sending a migrant back home
kinship links
push or pull factors based on places where family and friends have already found success (or failure)
chain migration
occurs when a migrant chooses a destination and writes, calls, or communicates through others to tell family or friends at home about the new place
immigration waves
swells in migration from one origin to the same destination
global-scale migration
long distance
explorers
includes surveyors, cartographers
colonization
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control
regional scale
migrants going to a neighboring country to take advantage of short-term economic opportunities, reconnect with a cultural group, or flee political conflict
islands of development
coastal cities or places within a region or country where most foreign investment goes, where the vast majority of paying jobs are located, and where infrastructure is concentrated
guest workers
allowing migrants to replenish a labor force and, theoretically, eventually return to their home countries
refugee
a person who has a wellfounded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, social class, or politics
internally displaced persons
people who have been displaced within their own countries but do not cross international borders as they flee
asylum
the right to protection in the first country in which a refugee arrives
repatriation
process of helping refugees return to their homelands
genocide
acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group
immigration laws
restrictive legislation towards potential immigrants
selective immigration
individuals with certain backgrounds or conditions are barred from entering a country
quotas
established limits for allowed number of specific immigrants
remittances
money migrants send to families back home, often a significant portion of the economy of poorer countries