Upgrade to remove ads
Ch. 19 The Aging Adult
Terms in this set (50)
gradual process characterized by continued development and maturation; changes of aging begin as one enters middle adulthood; depends on a person's sense of self-concept and prior ability to adapt
Genetic theory of aging
lifespan depends to a great extent on genetic factors; genes within the organism control "genetic clocks" which determine the occurence and rate of metabolic processes
Immunity theory of aging
focuses on the functions of the immune system; thymus loses size and function; vitamin E supplments important
Free Radical theory
free radicals, formed during cellular metabolism, are moleclues with separated high energy electrons which can have adverse effects on adjacent molecules
Middle adult years
40 to 65 years; women undergo menopause, experience hot flashes, mood swings, and fatigue, loss of estrogen increase risk for osteoporosis;
Physical changes in middle adulthood
fatty tissue redistributed
skin is drier
wrinkle lines appear on face
gray hair appears
cardiac output decreases
muscle mass, strength decrease
loss of calcium from bones
visual acuity diminishes; near vision (presbyopia)
hearing acuity diminishes
hormone production decreases
Cognitive development of middle adult
increased motivation to learn; response time may be slower
Erikson's theory (middle adulthood)
generativity vs stagnation; establish and guide next generation, accept middle age changes, adjust to needs of aging parents
"empty nest syndrome"
occurs when a child leaves home; most welcome increased space
Spiritual development (Fowler)
middle age adults are less rigid in their beliefs and have increased faith in supreme being as well as trust in spiritual strength
Leading causes of death in middle adult years
malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, unintentional injury (posioning, car accidents, falls), DM
Health promotion activities
eat a diet low in fat and cholesterol
drink alcohol in moderation (always ask how much they think is alot)
do not smoke
referral to support groups and individual counseling
Review guidelines for health related screenings, examinations and immunizations for aging adult
older than 65 years
young-old adult (60 to 74 years)
middle-old adult (75 to 84 years)
old-old adult (85 years and older)
form of prejudice in which older adults are stereotyped by characteristics found in only a few members of their group
Myths about older adults
Old age begins at 65 years of age
Most older adults live in longterm care facilities
Most older adults are sick
Old age means mental deterioration
Old adults are not interested in sex
Older adults dont care how they look
Most older adults are isolated and lonely
Bladder problems are a problem of aging
Common chronic disorders
hypertension, arthritis, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and sinusitis
more than four of five adults suffer from at least one chronic illness
older adult more likely to develop complications and recover slowly
includes a person's ability to remain self-reliant, to "make do" and to maintain a sense of independence and control over oneself and one's enviroment
Cognitive development (older adult)
cognition does not change appreciably with aging
normal for an older adult to take longer to respond and react (new or unfamiliar surrounding)
mild short term memory loss common
long term memory intact
maintained that older adults often withdraw from usual roles and become more introspective and self focused; later studies showed isolation is not desired
successful aging includes ability to maintain high levels of activity and functioning; healthy older adults increase their close relationships with family and friends
Erikson's theory (older adult)
ego integrity vs despair; older adults continue to look forward but also look back and begin to reflect on their life; ego integrity is facilitated when an older adult has successfully accomplished tasks earlier in life
life review; older adults often tell stories of past events; use as a therapy to facilitate adaption to present circumstances; help to accept past
not a normal consequence of aging; relation to an acute problem; high risk for falls and accidents
sense of being alone and lonely as a result of having fewer meaningful relationships; associated with declining health and high mortality rates
Review housing options for older adults
respite care facilities allow family a needed rest by temporarily housing and caring for older family member
Kohlberg Moral Development (older adult)
completed moral development; most are at conventional level (following society's rules in response to others expectations)
leading causes of death of older adult
heart disease, cancer, and stroke
Accidental injuries of older adult
risk factors- changes in vision and hearing, loss of mass and strength of muscles, slower reflexes and reaction time; combined effects of chronic illness and medication
most common cause of injuries and hospital admissions; vitamin D supplements
various organic disorders that progressively affect cognitive functioning; chronic; hospitalized more frequently
Alzheimer's disease (AD)
most common degenerative neurologic illness
irreversible and progresses from deficits in memory and thinking skills
first indications usually occur after 60 years of age and nearly half of 85 year old adults have the disease
estimated that at least 5 million people have AD
characterized by patchy areas of the brain
adult habitually becomes confused, restless, and agitated after dark
identifies common problems experienced in older adults
S- sleep disorders
P- problems with eating or feeding
E- evidence of falls
S- skin breakdown
TEMPORARY state of confusion; acute illness that can last from hours to weeks; resolves with treatment
interventions to redirect patient's attention to what is real; helps determine cause of confusion
extreme or prolonged sadness; frequently underdiagnosed; treatment involves psychotherapy and counseling
two million people older than 65 years of age; common in women 80 years or older
scientific and behavioral study of all aspects of aging
combines the basic knowledge and skills of nursing with specialized knowledge of aging in both illness and health
Nurses who care for diverse populations must be aware of patterns of disease that are more likely to affect certain ethnic or racial groups. Which examples accurately reflect these profiles? (Select all that apply.)
Black American men are 30% more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic white men.
• Hispanics have higher rates of obesity than non-Hispanic Caucasians.
• Black Americans have the highest mortality rate of any minority for most major cancers.
• Tuberculosis is 11 times more common in Asian Americans than the white population.
American Indian/ Alaska natives have an infant mortality rate 60% higher than that of whites
A gerontologic nurse practitioner has a large patient population with heart disease problems. This nurse practitioner is aware that heart disease is the leading cause of death in the aging adult. What is the cause of this trend?
Blood vessels lose their elasticity with age.
Gould viewed the middle years as a time when adults increase their feelings of self-satisfaction, value their spouse as a companion, and become more concerned with health. Which nursing action best facilitates this process?
Encouraging a patient to have regular checkups
An older adult client enjoys good overall health, but has just been diagnosed with pneumonia and has begun receiving an intravenous (IV) antibiotic. Shortly after being administered the first dose, the client pulled out his IV line and is now attempting to scale his bed rails. Which of the following phenomena most likely underlies this change in the client's cognition?
When caring for older adults, nurses must be aware of common conditions found in this population. Which statements accurately describe these conditions? (Select all that apply.)
Sundowning syndrome is a condition in which an older adult habitually becomes confused, restless, and agitated after dark.
• Depression is a prolonged or extreme state of sadness occurring in many older adults.
• A significant percentage of older adults limit their activities because of fear of falling that might result in serious health consequences.
A client is in the postoperative phase of an abdominal resection and colostomy. When educating the client on ostomy care by providing educational materials to read, it is important to assess the client's:
When providing nursing care to the elderly, it is most important to provide comfort due to which of the following changes?
Thermoregulation: The body can adapt to environmental temperatures within broad limits, but age and health status greatly affect this capacity. Thus, in the provision of nursing care that focuses on comfort, the nurse must be aware of changes in thermoregulation
A nurse is assessing a 55-year-old female patient. What is a normal physical change in the middle adult? (Select all that apply.)
Hearing acuity diminishes.
Cardiac output begins to decrease.
There is a loss of calcium from bones.
A nurse is assessing middle adults living in a retirement community. What behavior would the nurse typically see in the middle adult?
Looks inward, accepts life span as having definite boundaries, and has special interest in spouse, friends, and community (Gould)
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
The Aging Adult
Conception Through Young Adult
Nur 102 chapter 9
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 19: The Aging Adult
Adult Health (fundamentals ch 19 stolen from other…
Chapter 10: Life Span: Older Adults
The Aging Adult
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
patho - shock
patho assignment 2
patho assignment 1
Exam 1 - Ch. 3 Hereditary Influences