a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geologic processes
the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
the process in which material is laid down
the chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock
the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock's grains
Name one way in which early humans used rocks for.
Rock has also been used for centuries to make what three things?
Monuments, Roads, and Buildings.
is movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth's surface.
The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock
When uplifted rock reaches the Earth's surface what three things begin?
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
What rock type is formed from the slow cooling of magma under the earth's surface?
What geologic process can change granite (igneous rock) into gneiss (metamorphic rock)?
Heat and pressure
Which geologic process is illustrated in this animation?
Heat and pressure are illustrated in the animation
Which characteristic is found in sedimentary rocks?
The melting of metamorphic or igneous rock forms what substance?
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major classes of rock?a. Igneous b. Metamorphic c. Oceanic d. Sedimentary
Which characteristic is common to metamorphic rocks?a. Fossils b. Gas bubbles c. Glassy surface d. Ribbonlike layers
D. Ribbon like layes
Which geologic process can change any type of rock into sediment?
Weathering and Erosion
One reason that weathering is important is because it breaks rocks down into fragments, or blank, from which sedimentary rocks are made.
During blank, sediment is deposited into bodies of water and other low lying others
Sedimentary rock can be made when sediment is pressed and cemented together by blank dissolved in water.
When uplifted rocks reach the Earth' s surface what three things begin?
Weathering, Erosion, and deposition
Magma in the Earth's crust that has risen to the surface and cools and solidifies
Rock that is forced downward and is altered due to heat and pressure
Rocks that are partially or completely melted
Igneous rock at the Earth's surface that is weathered and wears away
sediment that washes down into rivers and oceans and is pressed and cemented together
A rock at the Earth's surface is primarily affected by forces of......
Weathering and Erosion
A rock deep underground is primarily affected by forces of..........
Extreme heat and Pressure
Scientists study rocks using what important criteria?
Composition and texture
What is the chemical makeup, or mineral content, of a rock based on?
A rock that consists mostly of the mineral quartz will have a composition very similar to.......
What do the size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determine?
What factors can affect the texture of a sedimentary rock?
The size of grains that make up the rock
What factors can affect the texture of an igneous rock?
The length of the time the magma had to cool
What kind of rock forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and solidifies?
Which kind of rock has a name that comes from a Latin word that means "fire"?
What two factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed?
composition of magma amount of time it takes to cool
Igneous rock begins as.....
What are the three ways that magma can form?
when rock is heated when pressure is released when rock changes composition
What three factors affect the formation of magma?
Composition temperature Pressure
How does the composition of the magma affect the temperature at which it solidifies?
some minerals in magma will freeze or become solid before other minerals do
Light colored igneous rocks are less___ than Skills dark colored igneous are
Light-colored igneous rocks that are rich in aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium are called __________ rocks.
Dark-colored igneous rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium are called _________rocks.
The longer it takes for a rock to cool and solidify, the more time _______have to grow, giving the rock a(n) _______grain.
mineral crystals coarser
The more quickly an igneous rock cools and solidifies,the_______ the grain.
a large, irregular-shaped intrusive body
the largest intrusive bodies
sheetlike intrusions that lie parallel to previous rock units
sheetlike intrusions that cut across previous rock units
Magma ______, or pushes,into surrounding rock below the Earth's surface to create such formations as batholiths and sills.
Intrusive igneous rock usually has a(n) _____ texture
Igneous rock that forms from lava, or magma that erupts onto the Earth's surface, is called ______.
extrusive igneous rock
Lava can either erupt or flow from long cracks in the Earth's crust called _____.
When lava flows from fissures on the ocean floor at places where tension is causing the ocean floor to be pulled apart, new_____is formed.
When a large amount of lava flows out of fissures onto land, the lava can cover a large area and form a plain called a(n) _____
. Over time, grains of sand may be compacted and cemented together to form a rock called ________.
When sediment is deposited in layers and compacted _______ is formed.
Dissolved minerals separate from water and become a natural _________ that binds the sedimentary rock together.
Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth's ___.
The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is often its layers, or___.
Rock or mineral fragments are called_____.
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented together is called ____ sedimentary rock.
Clastic sedimentary rocks can have coarse-, medium-, or fine-grained ____.
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of solution, such as sea water, to become rock is called______ sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains, or fossils, of plants and animals is called ____ sedimentary rock.
. Some limestone is made of the skeletons of tiny organisms called_________ that live in the ocean in huge colonies called_____.
Limestone made from the calcium carbonate from skeletons and shells of sea creatures is called______ limestone.
An organic sedimentary rock that forms from the action of heat and pressure on plant material over millions of years is called _______.
What is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers?
What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the wave motion of wind or water called?
What do we call the structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out?
The changing of sediments into rock.
silt particles cemented together
made up of rounded pebbles cemented together
made up of angular pebbles
rock salt made by the evaporation of sea water
a light colored igneous rock with high silica content
volcanic glass with no crystalline, breaks with very sharp edges
an igneous rock with a low silica content that flows easily
one of eight basic rock forming minerals
rocks that come from the mantle
a very light igneous rock, honeycomed volcanic glass
a common intrusive igneous rock
a vent for extrusive igneous rocks
Igneous rock that forms below the Earth's surface and cool slowly
Igneous rocks that form from magma that reaches the surface of the Earth
Which rock's name comes from the Greek words for "changed" and "shape"?
What kind of rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition have been changed?
What force or forces can create metamorphic rocks?
Heat and Pressure
The heat and pressure at which some metamorphic rocks originally form allow them to sometimes remain ______ at pressures and temperatures that would melt other rock.
During _, rock is heated by nearby magma.
Pressure caused by large movements within the crust sometimes cause the ____ in metamorphic rocks to align themselves in parallel bands.
The effect of heat on rock decreases as the rock's ________from the magma increases and its _______ decreases.
When pressure builds up in rock which is located under other rock formations, ___ occurs.
Regional metamorphism occurs deep in the Earth's _____
Which of the following is NOT a property of an index mineral? a. forms only at a certain temperature b. forms only in sedimentary rock c. forms only at certain temperatures d. forms only in metamorphic rocks
. Which of the following minerals is an example of an index mineral? a. calcite b. quartz c. staurolite d. hematite
Which of the following is an example of an mineral that indicates that a metamorphic rock was formed at a great depth and under extreme heat and pressure? Chlorite Mica Magma Garnet
Metamorphic rocks in which mineral grains are not aligned are called.....
the process in which a mineral changes composition during metamorphism is called....
After quartz limestone has recrystallized the new rock is called....
A rock in which coarse grained minerals separate into distinct bands is called...
a foliated metamorphic rock made from shale is called
the texture of a metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands is called....;...
a metamorphic rock made from phyllite that has been exposed to heat and pressure is called.....
a sedimentary rock made of layers of clay is called....
a metamorphic rock made from slate that has been subjected to heat and pressure is called
A change in the shape of a rock caused by a force on it is called
What kind of texture does Igneous rock have when magma cools slowly?
What kind of texture does Igneous rock have when magma cools rapidly?
What kind of rock is formed when magma intrudes into another rock?
Intrusive Igneous rock
What kind of rock is formed from lava that cools on the Earth's surface