the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geologic processes
the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
the chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock
the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock's grains
is movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth's surface.
When uplifted rock reaches the Earth's surface what three things begin?
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
What rock type is formed from the slow cooling of magma under the earth's surface?
What geologic process can change granite (igneous rock) into gneiss (metamorphic rock)?
Heat and pressure
Which geologic process is illustrated in this animation?
Heat and pressure are illustrated in the animation
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major classes of rock?a. Igneous
Which characteristic is common to metamorphic rocks?a. Fossils
b. Gas bubbles
c. Glassy surface
d. Ribbonlike layers
D. Ribbon like layes
One reason that weathering is important is because it breaks rocks down into fragments, or blank, from which sedimentary rocks are made.
Sedimentary rock can be made when sediment is pressed and cemented together by blank dissolved in water.
When uplifted rocks reach the Earth' s surface what three things begin?
Weathering, Erosion, and deposition
sediment that washes down into rivers and oceans and is pressed and cemented together
A rock that consists mostly of the mineral quartz will have a composition very similar to.......
What factors can affect the texture of an igneous rock?
The length of the time the magma had to cool
What two factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed?
composition of magma
amount of time it takes to cool
What are the three ways that magma can form?
when rock is heated
when pressure is released
when rock changes composition
How does the composition of the magma affect the temperature at which it
some minerals in magma will freeze or become solid before other minerals do
Light-colored igneous rocks that are rich in aluminum, potassium, silicon, and
sodium are called __________ rocks.
Dark-colored igneous rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium are
The longer it takes for a rock to cool and solidify, the more time
_______have to grow, giving the rock a(n)
Magma ______, or pushes,into surrounding rock below the Earth's surface to create such formations as batholiths and sills.
Igneous rock that forms from lava, or magma that erupts onto the Earth's surface, is called ______.
extrusive igneous rock
When lava flows from fissures on the ocean floor at places where tension is causing the ocean floor to be pulled apart, new_____is formed.
When a large amount of lava flows out of fissures onto land, the lava can cover a large area and form a plain called a(n) _____
. Over time, grains of sand may be compacted and cemented together to form a rock called ________.
Dissolved minerals separate from water and become a natural _________ that binds the sedimentary rock together.
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented
together is called ____ sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of solution, such as
sea water, to become rock is called______ sedimentary rock.
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains, or fossils, of plants and animals
is called ____ sedimentary rock.
. Some limestone is made of the skeletons of tiny organisms called_________ that live in the ocean in huge colonies called_____.
Limestone made from the calcium carbonate from skeletons and shells of sea
creatures is called______ limestone.
An organic sedimentary rock that forms from the action of heat and pressure
on plant material over millions of years is called _______.
What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the wave motion of wind or water called?
What do we call the structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out?
What kind of rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition have been changed?
The heat and pressure at which some metamorphic rocks originally form allow
them to sometimes remain ______ at pressures and temperatures that would melt other rock.
Pressure caused by large movements within the crust sometimes cause the
____ in metamorphic rocks to align themselves in parallel bands.
The effect of heat on rock decreases as the rock's ________from the magma increases and its _______ decreases.
When pressure builds up in rock which is located under other rock formations, ___ occurs.
Which of the following is NOT a property of an index mineral?
a. forms only at a certain temperature
b. forms only in sedimentary rock
c. forms only at certain temperatures
d. forms only in metamorphic rocks
. Which of the following minerals is an example of an index mineral?
Which of the following is an example of an mineral that indicates that a metamorphic rock was formed at a great depth and under extreme heat and pressure?
the process in which a mineral changes composition during metamorphism is called....
the texture of a metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands is called....;...
a metamorphic rock made from phyllite that has been exposed to heat and pressure is called.....