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116 terms

Rocks: Mineral Mixtures

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Rock
a naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
Rock Cycle
the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geologic processes
erosion
the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
Deposition
the process in which material is laid down
composition
the chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock
texture
the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rock's grains
Name one way in which early humans used rocks for.
Hammers
Rock has also been used for centuries to make what three things?
Monuments, Roads, and Buildings.
Uplift
is movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth's surface.
Weathering
The process in which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock
When uplifted rock reaches the Earth's surface what three things begin?
Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
What rock type is formed from the slow cooling of magma under the earth's surface?
Intrusive igneous
What geologic process can change granite (igneous rock) into gneiss (metamorphic rock)?
Heat and pressure
Which geologic process is illustrated in this animation?
Heat and pressure are illustrated in the animation
Which characteristic is found in sedimentary rocks?
Fossils
The melting of metamorphic or igneous rock forms what substance?
Magma forms
Which of the following is NOT one of the three major classes of rock?a. Igneous
b. Metamorphic
c. Oceanic
d. Sedimentary
C. Oceanic
Which characteristic is common to metamorphic rocks?a. Fossils
b. Gas bubbles
c. Glassy surface
d. Ribbonlike layers
D. Ribbon like layes
Which geologic process can change any type of rock into sediment?
Weathering and Erosion
One reason that weathering is important is because it breaks rocks down into fragments, or blank, from which sedimentary rocks are made.
Sediment
During blank, sediment is deposited into bodies of water and other low lying others
Deposition
Sedimentary rock can be made when sediment is pressed and cemented together by blank dissolved in water.
Minerals
When uplifted rocks reach the Earth' s surface what three things begin?
Weathering, Erosion, and deposition
Magma in the Earth's crust that has risen to the surface and cools and solidifies
Igneous Rock
Rock that is forced downward and is altered due to heat and pressure
Metamorphic Rock
Rocks that are partially or completely melted
magma
Igneous rock at the Earth's surface that is weathered and wears away
Sediment
sediment that washes down into rivers and oceans and is pressed and cemented together
Sedimentary rock
A rock at the Earth's surface is primarily affected by forces of......
Weathering and Erosion
A rock deep underground is primarily affected by forces of..........
Extreme heat and Pressure
Scientists study rocks using what important criteria?
Composition and texture
What is the chemical makeup, or mineral content, of a rock based on?
its composition
A rock that consists mostly of the mineral quartz will have a composition very similar to.......
quartz
What do the size, shape, and positions of the grains that make up a rock determine?
Rock's texture
What factors can affect the texture of a sedimentary rock?
The size of grains that make up the rock
What factors can affect the texture of an igneous rock?
The length of the time the magma had to cool
What kind of rock forms when hot, liquid rock, or magma, cools and
solidifies?
igneous
Which kind of rock has a name that comes from a Latin word that
means "fire"?
igneous
What two factors affect the type of igneous rock that is formed?
composition of magma
amount of time it takes to cool
Igneous rock begins as.....
magma
What are the three ways that magma can form?
when rock is heated
when pressure is released
when rock changes composition
What three factors affect the formation of magma?
Composition
temperature
Pressure
How does the composition of the magma affect the temperature at which it
solidifies?
some minerals in magma will freeze or become solid before other minerals do
Light colored igneous rocks are less___ than Skills dark colored igneous are
Dense
Light-colored igneous rocks that are rich in aluminum, potassium, silicon, and
sodium are called __________ rocks.
Felsic
Dark-colored igneous rocks that are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium are
called _________rocks.
mafic
The longer it takes for a rock to cool and solidify, the more time
_______have to grow, giving the rock a(n)
_______grain.
mineral crystals
coarser
The more quickly an igneous rock cools and solidifies,the_______ the grain.
Finer
a large, irregular-shaped intrusive body
pluton
the largest intrusive bodies
batholiths
sheetlike intrusions that lie parallel to previous rock units
sills
sheetlike intrusions that cut across previous rock units
dikes
Magma ______, or pushes,into surrounding rock below the Earth's surface to create such formations as batholiths and sills.
intrudes
Intrusive igneous rock usually has a(n) _____ texture
coarse-grained
Igneous rock that forms from lava, or magma that erupts onto the Earth's surface, is called ______.
extrusive igneous rock
Lava can either erupt or flow from long cracks in the Earth's crust called _____.
fissures
When lava flows from fissures on the ocean floor at places where tension is causing the ocean floor to be pulled apart, new_____is formed.
ocean floor
When a large amount of lava flows out of fissures onto land, the lava can cover a large area and form a plain called a(n) _____
lava plateau
. Over time, grains of sand may be compacted and cemented together to form a rock called ________.
sandstone
When sediment is deposited in layers and compacted _______ is formed.
sedimentary rock
Dissolved minerals separate from water and become a natural _________ that binds the sedimentary rock together.
cement
Sedimentary rocks form at or near the Earth's ___.
surface
The most noticeable feature of sedimentary rock is often its layers, or___.
strata
Rock or mineral fragments are called_____.
clasts
Sedimentary rock that forms when rock or mineral fragments are cemented
together is called ____ sedimentary rock.
clastic
Clastic sedimentary rocks can have coarse-, medium-, or fine-grained ____.
textures
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals crystallize out of solution, such as
sea water, to become rock is called______ sedimentary rock.
Chemical
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains, or fossils, of plants and animals
is called ____ sedimentary rock.
organic
. Some limestone is made of the skeletons of tiny organisms called_________ that live in the ocean in huge colonies called_____.
coral
reefs
Limestone made from the calcium carbonate from skeletons and shells of sea
creatures is called______ limestone.
fossiliferous
An organic sedimentary rock that forms from the action of heat and pressure
on plant material over millions of years is called _______.
coal
What is the process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers?
stratification
What are the markings on sedimentary rocks that record the wave motion of wind or water called?
ripple marks
What do we call the structures that form when fine-grained sediments at the bottom of a shallow body of water are exposed to the air and dry out?
mud cracks
The changing of sediments into rock.
lithification
silt particles cemented together
siltstone
made up of rounded pebbles cemented together
conglomerate
made up of angular pebbles
breccia
rock salt made by the evaporation of sea water
halite
a light colored igneous rock with high silica content
rhyolite
volcanic glass with no crystalline, breaks with very sharp edges
obsidian
an igneous rock with a low silica content that flows easily
basalt
one of eight basic rock forming minerals
olivine
rocks that come from the mantle
igneous
a very light igneous rock, honeycomed volcanic glass
pumice
a common intrusive igneous rock
granite
a vent for extrusive igneous rocks
volcano
Igneous rock that forms below the Earth's surface and cool slowly
intrusive
Igneous rocks that form from magma that reaches the surface of the Earth
Extrusive
Metamorphic
Metamorphic
Which rock's name comes from the Greek words for "changed" and "shape"?
Metamorphic
What kind of rocks are rocks in which the structure, texture, or composition have been changed?
Metamorphic
What force or forces can create metamorphic rocks?
Heat and Pressure
The heat and pressure at which some metamorphic rocks originally form allow
them to sometimes remain ______ at pressures and temperatures that would melt other rock.
Solid
During _, rock is heated by nearby magma.
Metamorphism
Pressure caused by large movements within the crust sometimes cause the
____ in metamorphic rocks to align themselves in parallel bands.
grains
The effect of heat on rock decreases as the rock's ________from the magma increases and its _______ decreases.
distance
temperature
When pressure builds up in rock which is located under other rock formations, ___ occurs.
regional metamorphism
Regional metamorphism occurs deep in the Earth's _____
Crust
Which of the following is NOT a property of an index mineral?
a. forms only at a certain temperature
b. forms only in sedimentary rock
c. forms only at certain temperatures
d. forms only in metamorphic rocks
B
. Which of the following minerals is an example of an index mineral?
a. calcite
b. quartz
c. staurolite
d. hematite
C.
Which of the following is an example of an mineral that indicates that a metamorphic rock was formed at a great depth and under extreme heat and pressure?
Chlorite
Mica
Magma
Garnet
Garnet
Metamorphic rocks in which mineral grains are not aligned are called.....
non foliated
the process in which a mineral changes composition during metamorphism is called....
recrystallization
After quartz limestone has recrystallized the new rock is called....
Quartzite
A rock in which coarse grained minerals separate into distinct bands is called...
gneiss
a foliated metamorphic rock made from shale is called
slate
the texture of a metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands is called....;...
foliated
a metamorphic rock made from phyllite that has been exposed to heat and pressure is called.....
schist
a sedimentary rock made of layers of clay is called....
shale
a metamorphic rock made from slate that has been subjected to heat and pressure is called
phyllite
A change in the shape of a rock caused by a force on it is called
deformation
What kind of texture does Igneous rock have when magma cools slowly?
Coarse Grained
What kind of texture does Igneous rock have when magma cools rapidly?
Fine Grained
What kind of rock is formed when magma intrudes into another rock?
Intrusive Igneous rock
What kind of rock is formed from lava that cools on the Earth's surface
Extrusive Igneous rock