61 terms

AP Bio Midterm Topics 4-6

building blocks of nucleic acids
Parts of nucleotides
phosphate, pentose, nitrogen base
a single strand of nucleotides which can never contain thymine
double strand of nucleotides which can never contain uracil; form bases with hydrogen bonds (weak)
Robert Hooke
first person to discover cells; (looked at cork)
Anton Leeuwenhoek
invented first microscope
Robert Brown
1st person to describe the nucleus of a cell
Cell Theory
1. all plants are composed of cells
2. all animals are composed of cells
3. cells have a definite structure + function
4. cells come from pre-existing cells
discovered that all plants are made of cells
discovered that all animals are made of cells
discovered that cells come from pre-existing cells
Compound microscope
(optical light microscope) uses normal light; 2 lenses
eye piece of a microscope; lens magnifies x10
body tube
hollow; less light can pass through it
nose piece
moves the objectives
(types of lenses) magnify
scan objective
low power objective
high power
oil immersion lens
100x provides pathways for light to enter the microscope
holds specimen
controls the light
Abbe Condensor
(in diaphragm) forces light to one part
Coarse adjusting knob
(course focusing mechanism) gives a coarse image, use 1st when focusing, can only be used under scanning or low power
Fine Adjustment Knob
(fine focusing mechanism) gives a detailed image; can be used under any power
total magnification
ocular x objective
the ability to distinguish between 2 points that are less than 1mm apart
how the image looks in a microscope
upside down and backwards
lower the magnification
the larger and brighter the field, and the specimen is small
bright field microscopy
(gross morphology)- field of view: bright; specimen: dark
dark field microscopy
(unique morphology) field of view: dark; specimen: bright
gross morphology
study of the basic shape of the specimen
dissection microscope
(stereo microscope) very little magnification and resolution; normally used to study macroscopic specimens
ultraviolet microscope
uses ultraviolet light; has better magnification and better resolution then a compound microscope; uses a fluorescent stain; used to study different parts of the cell
phase contrast microscope
better magnification + resolution then compound microscope; based on the ability of the specimen to absorb different amounts of light
electron microscope
best magnification and resolution; uses a beam of electrons instead of light
used to study viruses, the ultra structure of a cell, and atoms
transmission electron microscope
dead specimen; ultra thin, "cell slicer"
scanning EM
specimens don't have to be dead or ultra thin; 3 dimensional image
scanning probe EM
best magnification
simple stain
1 dye using gross morphology
differential stain
more than one color dye, see the differences between cells, see the differences between two different cells
gram stain (+)
gram stain (-)
red- color of this stain
spins specimen at high speeds, making them separate according to density
gram stain
differential stains to use for bacteria
dissection of a cell
attaches to the microscope and controls your microscapel and microprobe
increases with the cube of the diameter
surface area
increases with the square of the area
size of one cell
diameter of the field/ number of cells
high field
(low mag/ high mag) x low field
high power
(low mag/ high mag) x low power
binomial nomenclature
a way of naming each organism (genus species)
Archaea Domain
kingdom: archaeabacteria
*all procaryotic cells = simple
(Archaeabacteria kingdom) produce methane during respiration; live in swamps
live in high salt concentrated areas
ex: dead sea
live in hot temperatures
ex: hot springs
Monera kingdom
domain: eubacteria; true bacteria and blue-green algae *procaryotic
Eubacteria Domain
Monera Kingdom *procaryotic
Archaebacteria kingdom
(archaea domain) has mostly procaryotic cells
Protista Kingdom
Eucaryote domain- has algae and protozoa