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building blocks of nucleic acids

Parts of nucleotides

phosphate, pentose, nitrogen base


a single strand of nucleotides which can never contain thymine


double strand of nucleotides which can never contain uracil; form bases with hydrogen bonds (weak)

Robert Hooke

first person to discover cells; (looked at cork)

Anton Leeuwenhoek

invented first microscope

Robert Brown

1st person to describe the nucleus of a cell

Cell Theory

1. all plants are composed of cells
2. all animals are composed of cells
3. cells have a definite structure + function
4. cells come from pre-existing cells


discovered that all plants are made of cells


discovered that all animals are made of cells


discovered that cells come from pre-existing cells

Compound microscope

(optical light microscope) uses normal light; 2 lenses


eye piece of a microscope; lens magnifies x10

body tube

hollow; less light can pass through it

nose piece

moves the objectives


(types of lenses) magnify

scan objective


low power objective


high power


oil immersion lens

100x provides pathways for light to enter the microscope


holds specimen


controls the light

Abbe Condensor

(in diaphragm) forces light to one part

Coarse adjusting knob

(course focusing mechanism) gives a coarse image, use 1st when focusing, can only be used under scanning or low power

Fine Adjustment Knob

(fine focusing mechanism) gives a detailed image; can be used under any power

total magnification

ocular x objective


the ability to distinguish between 2 points that are less than 1mm apart

how the image looks in a microscope

upside down and backwards

lower the magnification

the larger and brighter the field, and the specimen is small

bright field microscopy

(gross morphology)- field of view: bright; specimen: dark

dark field microscopy

(unique morphology) field of view: dark; specimen: bright

gross morphology

study of the basic shape of the specimen

dissection microscope

(stereo microscope) very little magnification and resolution; normally used to study macroscopic specimens

ultraviolet microscope

uses ultraviolet light; has better magnification and better resolution then a compound microscope; uses a fluorescent stain; used to study different parts of the cell

phase contrast microscope

better magnification + resolution then compound microscope; based on the ability of the specimen to absorb different amounts of light

electron microscope

best magnification and resolution; uses a beam of electrons instead of light
used to study viruses, the ultra structure of a cell, and atoms

transmission electron microscope

dead specimen; ultra thin, "cell slicer"

scanning EM

specimens don't have to be dead or ultra thin; 3 dimensional image

scanning probe EM

best magnification

simple stain

1 dye using gross morphology

differential stain

more than one color dye, see the differences between cells, see the differences between two different cells

gram stain (+)


gram stain (-)

red- color of this stain


spins specimen at high speeds, making them separate according to density

gram stain

differential stains to use for bacteria


dissection of a cell


attaches to the microscope and controls your microscapel and microprobe


increases with the cube of the diameter

surface area

increases with the square of the area

size of one cell

diameter of the field/ number of cells

high field

(low mag/ high mag) x low field

high power

(low mag/ high mag) x low power

binomial nomenclature

a way of naming each organism (genus species)

Archaea Domain

kingdom: archaeabacteria
*all procaryotic cells = simple


(Archaeabacteria kingdom) produce methane during respiration; live in swamps


live in high salt concentrated areas
ex: dead sea


live in hot temperatures
ex: hot springs

Monera kingdom

domain: eubacteria; true bacteria and blue-green algae *procaryotic

Eubacteria Domain

Monera Kingdom *procaryotic

Archaebacteria kingdom

(archaea domain) has mostly procaryotic cells

Protista Kingdom

Eucaryote domain- has algae and protozoa

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