Term used by historians for the movement of diseases and peoples across the Atlantic and part of a larger pattern of biological transformation (alteration of the natural and human environments).
For example, Spanish invasion brought smallpox, influenza, measles, yellow fever, and other silent killers carried from Europe and Africa ravaged Indian communities whose inhabitants had never encountered these diseased before and thus had no immunity to them.
The only signif illness that traveled in the opposite direction - Columbus's sailors carried a virulent strain of syphilis back to Europe.
Foods of Western Hemisphere, esp maize, potatoes, manioc, sweet potatoes, and tomatoes signif increased agricultural yields and population growth in other continents. Eurasian grains, wheat, barley, rye, and rice made the transatlantic voyage along with undesirable imports like dandelions and other weeds. See map 2.1 (p44)
15th EditionSusan A. MacManus, Thomas R. Dye 15th EditionSusan A. MacManus, Thomas R. Dye 9th EditionChristina Dejong, Christopher E. Smith, George F Cole