System Analysis and Design: Chapter 3
Terms in this set (38)
What shapes a project?
completion on time, within budget, and satisfy users and meets requirements.
Preliminary investigation state
System developers can initiate a formal project as early as _______, or later on, as analysis, design, and implementation activities occur
Project manager/Project leader
a senior systems analyst or an IT department manager if the project is large
handles administrative responsibilities for the team and negotiates with users who might have conflicting requirements or want changes that would require additional time and expense.
Four activities that project managers typically perform
planning, scheduling, monitoring, and reporting
Project scheduling involves
selecting and staffing the project team and assigning tasks. It uses Gannt charts and PERT/CPM charts
Project monitoring requires
guiding, supervising, and coordinating the team's workload.
Effective reporting requires
strong communication skills and a sense of what others want and need to know about the project
Developed by the U.S. Navy to manage very complex projects
Critical Path Method (CPM)
developed by private industry. A bottom-up technique because it analyzes a large, complex project as a series of individual tasks.
First step in creating a PERT chart
first identify all the project tasks and estimate how much time each task will take to perform
Task, or activity
any work that has a beginning and an end and requires the use of company resources such as people, time, or money
Event, or milestone
a recognizable reference point that you can use to monitor progress
the beginning and end of each task are marked by this
First step in creating a WBS
to list all the tasks
tasks in a work breakdown structure must be arranged in a logical sequence, or a _____
In a PERT/CPM chart, project tasks are shown in these, arranged in the sequence in which they must be performed
Five sections of a task box (rectangular box)
task name, task ID, task duration, start day/date, finish day/date
when several tasks can start at the same time
two or more concurrent tasks depending on a single prior task.
a series of tasks which, if delayed, would affect the completion date of the overall project.
A review of a project team member's work by other members of the team
systems analysts review the work of other systems analysts, and programmers review the work of other programmers
Design reviews, code reviews, or testing reviews
Structured walk-throughs that take place through SDLC
Clear, verifiable milestones
If these exists, it will be simple to determine if and when those targets are achieved
they schedule regular meetings to update and discuss project status, issues, problems, and opportunities
First step in SDLC
identify the tasks, determine task dependencies, and enter the task name, ID, and duration
an event that could affect the project negatively.
the process of identifying, analyzing, anticipating, and, monitoring risks to minimize their impact on the project.
Qualitative risk analysis
evaluates each risk by estimating the probability that it will occur and the degree of impact. Project managers can use a formula to weigh risk and impact values, or they can display the results in a two-axis grid.
Quantitative risk analysis
the purpose of this is to understand the actual impact in terms of dollars, project scope, or quality. It can involve a modeling process called what-if analysis, which allows a project manager to vary one or more elements in a model to measure the effect on other elements.
this activity is ongoing through the risk management process. It is important to conduct a continuous tracking process that can identify new risks, notice changes in existing risk, and update any other areas of the risk management plan.
Microsoft's risk management model includes the following factors
Probability, impact, cost, category of risk type, description, mitigation plan, contingency plan, trigger
When the information system does not meet business requirements
it might be caused by unidentified or unclear requirements, inadequately defined scope, imprecise targets, shortcuts or sloppy work during systems analysis, poor design choices, insufficient testing or inadequate testing procedures, and lack of change control procedures
the project is certain to fail if
the project manager fails to plan, staff, organize, supervise, communicate, motivate, evaluate, direct, and control properly
what options are available when a project manager first recognizes that a project is in trouble
Trimming the project requirements, adding to the project resources, delaying the project deadline, and improving management controls and procedures
Adding staff can mean
training and orienting new people
adding more people to a project can increase the time it takes to complete projects because of the time it takes to train new people