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Chapter 6: Napoleon

Where was Napoleon Bonaparte from? How was his childhood important in shaping his ideals during his adult years?
-born in Corsica, Italy
-went to military school in France--he was bullied by the other boys for his italian accent and therefore, grew strong from that experience
How did Napoleon gain power?
-overthrew the Directory and set up a 3-man governing board
-Napoleon took the name "First Consul"--then "Consul for life"
-Later acquired enough power to name himself Emperor of the French
Define plebiscite
a popular vote by ballot that Napoleon used in order to make sure the people favored his actions.
What were some of the reforms that Napoleon instigated?
-controlled prices
-encouraged new industry
-built roads and canals
-system of public schools
-made peace with Catholic Church
-encouraged emigres to return but made them take an oath of loyalty
-peasants were able to keep the land they bought from the nobles and clergy during the revolution
-opened all jobs, based on talent
-Napoleonic code
What was the Napoleonic code?
a new code of laws that embodied the ideas of the Englightenment. It gave equaliy to all citizens before the law, religious tolerance, and abolition of feudalism. Women, however, lost almost all of their newly gained rights.
How did Napoleon try to fight Britain?
He waged economic warfare through the Continental System, which closed Europeans ports to British ports. But it failed because Britain had a powerful navy which traded with the Americas and India.
Where was Napoleon exiled to? Who became the king? What happened at Elba?
-Louis XVIII (brother of Louis XVI) became king
-Napoleon eventually escaped his exile and came back to France, welcomed by the people
What happened at the Battle of Waterloo? What was is result?
The alliance of Russia, Britain, Austria, and Prussia went up against a weak France. He was crushed at the Battle of Waterloo. He was then exiled to St. Helena and died there.
What was the congress of Vienna? Who was Talleyrand and who was Metternich? What roles did they play in the conference?
After waterloo, diplomats and heads of state sat down at the Congress of Vienna. Metternich was the dominant figure at the congress and represented Austria--he wanted to restore things to how they were in 1792. Talleyrand represented France. They redrew the map of England and took much land from France.
What is legitimacy?
Restoring hereditary monarchies that the French Revolution or Napoleon had unseated.
What was the Concert of Europe?
It was system where the powers met periodically to discuss any problems affecting the peace of Europe.