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Hormones and Behavior-Test 1
Terms in this set (69)
What are some features of the endocrine system? How is it similar and different from other chemical communications systems?
1. Hormones are organic chemical messengers produced and released, into the bloodstream, by specialized glands called endocrine glands.
2. Similar- Hormones are similar in function to neurotransmitters, the chemicals used by the nervous system to coordinate animals activities. and similar to cytokines, chemical released in immune system. because they use chemical signals
-Difference- hormones are like driving in a car. neural is like on a train. Neural takes milliseconds to complete, hormones can take seconds, minutes, hours. Hormones are involuntary and neural are voluntary.
Describe an early experiment and the methodology used to determine a hormone-behavior relationship.
3 groups of tested roosters. Castrated, castrated and reimplanted of its own testes in abdomen, castrated and reimplanted another roosters testes in abdomen.
-3 major conclusions:
1-testes are transplantable
2-transplanted testes can function and produce sperm
3-no nerves directing testicular function. its a secretory blood borne product
What are some problems with determining causality in hormone-behavior interactions?
2. Explain why behavior endocrinology's rely on converging evidence from a variety of approaches?
3. How do we establish a causal link between a hormone and a behavior?
1. Unique and complex interactions of genes and environment (chicken or the egg, humans reared in variety of environments)
2. Because there are different levels of analysis (immediate causation, development, evolution, and adaptive function.)
3. If you remove the hormone, the hormone dependent behavior will disappear. And will reappear when hormone is replaced. and hormone levels and the behavior in question should be covariant.
What are some experiment techniques for examining hormone-behavior relationships?
-Ablation- removal or extirpation of suspected course of a hormone (Bertholds experiment)
-Bioassasy- a test of the effects of the hormone on a living animal.
-Brain Imaging- (MRI, CT)
We discussed several examples of hormones in the news recently (i.e. transgender, sex differences in science, steroids in sports, Viagra etc.). If you were a researcher studying one of these issues, hypothesize what influence hormones could have on the central nervous system including sensory systems (input) and effectors (output) that results in a subsequent change of behavior.
- If we took steroids in sports:
We'd have to determine how the steroids affects the sensory system, central nervous system, and the effector.
I hypothesize the steroids
What are the different modes of chemical communication. Provide examples.
Intracrine mediation- chemical mediation of intracellular events
Autrocrine mediation- feed back to influence the same cells that secreted them.
Paracrine mediation- secrete chemicals that affect adjacent cells.
Endocrine mediation- secrete chemicals into the bloodstream, where they may travel to distant target cells
Exocrine mediation- secrete chemicals into ducts (salivary ducts)
Ectocrine mediation- (pheromones) are released into the environment by individuals to communicate with others.
What are the general 6 features of an endocrine system?
1. Endocrine glands are ductless
2. they're rich in blood supply
3. hormones are released into bloodstream
4. Hormones can virtually travel to every cell in the body.
5.Hormones interact with distant targets via receptors (cell surface or intracellular)
6. Hormones affect cell function (metabolism, energy storage)
What are the 7 releasing/Inhibitory hormones?
Where are they secreted from?
-Thyrotopin-releasing hormone (TRH)
-Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH)
-Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)
-Melanotropin releasing hormone (MRH)
-Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
-Prolactin Inhibitory hormone (PIH)
- Melanotropin Inhibitory Hormone (MIH)
What are the 7 tropic (anterior pituitary) Hormones?
-Luteinizing hormone (LH)
-Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
-Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
-Growth Hormone (GH)
-Adrenocorticotopic hormone (ACTH)
- Melanocyte stimulation Hormone (MSH)
2 hormones released in posterior pituitary gland?
Oxytocin- influence reproduction function in mammals, uterine contractions, induce labor, milk letdown
Vasopressin- also known as antidiuretic hormone (ADH). retain water, causes constriction of blood vessels when extreme blood loss.
For the Following 9 groups; be able to discuss what class its from, where its produced, and where it goes. What do we know about its influence on behavior?
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH):
Peptide hormone, Anterior pituitary,
Luteinizing Hormone (LH):
Peptide Hormone, produced in anterior pituitary, goes to gonads.
Affects social behavior
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