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Catherine The Great

Favored the landed nobility (Boyars) and expanded the territory of Russia to include the Northern coast of the Black Sea, this German princess overthrew her husband to claim the Russian throne

Phillip II

This monarch sought to consolidate the land left to him by his father Charles V and forced conformity to the Catholic faith, even into the New World

Elizabeth I

Coming to the throne in the middle of a religious upheaval (her predecessor earned the name "Bloody") this monarch led her country to defeat the greatest power (armada) of the day

Louis XIV


James I

A strong advocate of the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings, the first kind of the Stuart dynast sought to hold on to every power a kind could have. In his spare time he helped create the English bible and fought the first English permanent settlement in the North America

Peter the Great

Enduring two palace coup d'etat before he was seventeen, he gave Russia no choice but to become modern like Europe he toured in 1699, taxed the population, built an army and navy in order to expand, and even made the nobles shave and dress in western styles

Charles I

The shortest monarch in English history, he was even shorter after Parliament had him beheaded for refusing to allow parliament to rule the country, making him the most famous martyr of the absolute Monarchs

Louis XIV

As a young boy, revolutionaries broke into the palace and held him at gunpoint for a time during the Fronde. Because of this event, he moved out of Paris and rebuilt a hunting lodge to suit his extravagant taste.

Frederick William the Great Elector

Inheriting control of the country that had no natural frontiers for defense, he created a military state with a large standing army and put the aristocracy (Junkers) to serve as officers

Louis XIV

He put his brilliant financial minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert in charge of his country's economy. Colbert practiced mercantilism, which sought to create a favorable balance of trade, stimulate the industrial sector with subsidies and protective tariffs, and accumulate a large supply of bullion

James II

Arguable England's last absolute monarch, the Catholic king of Protestant country was too much for parliament and they incited King William of the Netherlands (and his wife Mary) to drive him out and take the throne to reign- but let parliament rule

Phillip II

Escorial was the palace/cathedral/monastery of this Spanish monarch who let his country to be the first global, European power, claiming most of the new world and sizable pieces of the Far East

Peter the Great

A "City built on Bones" (estimates are that up to 100,000 died in draining the swamps) St.Petersburg was the monarch's "Window to the West" as he sought to bring his backward Eastern country into the modern world


Russian nobles


bring together into a single whole or system or make firm & secure


Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.

Divine Right of Kings

the belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God


a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family

Coup d'etat

A sudden overthrow of the government by a small group


representative law making body whose members are elected or appointed


one who voluntarily suffers death as the penalty for refusing to renounce their religion


a privileged class holding hereditary titles


policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver


grants of money


taxes on imports or exports


Gold & silver in bulk beofre coining, or valued by weight

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