18 terms

AP Bio - Glycolysis

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glycolysis:
occurs in the cytosol, begins the degradation process by breaking glucose into 2 molecules of pyruvate
glucose is a __-carbon sugar
6
the glycolysis energy use/production, step 1:
glucose + 2 ATP = 2 ADP + 2Phospates
glycolysis energy use/production, step 2:
4 ADP + 4 phosphates = 4 ATP
glycolysis energy use/production, step 3:
2 NAD+ + 4e- + 4H+ = 2NADH + 2H+
glycolysis energy use/production, net:
glucose = 2 pyruvate + 2 H2O ; 4 ATP - 2 ATP = 2 ATP ; 2 NAD+ + 4e- + 4H+ = NADH + 2H+
no ____ is released during glycolysis:
CO2
hexokinase:
the enzyme that phosphorelates glucose when it enters glycolysis
phosphorelatation makes glucose:
unable to move out of the cell (charged ions cannot escape) and makes it more chemically reactive
phosphofructokinase
enzyme transfers phosphate group from ATP to sugar; makes sugar ready to split in half
aldolase
this enzyme cuts the 6-carbon sugar into 2 3-carbon sugars
isomerase
catalyzes reversible conversion between 2 3-carbon sugars
triose phosphate dehydrogenase
enzyme catalyzes two reactions: the sugar is oxidized (very exergonic reaction) and the enzyme uses the energy to attach a phosphate group to the oxidized substrate
phosphoglycerokinase
aids production of 2 ATPs
for 1 glucose molecule, _ ATP is formed
2
phosphoglycermutase
this enzyme relocates phosphate group remaining after the 2 ATPs are produced
enolase
causes double bond to form by extracting water = makes PEP, very unstable
pyruvate kinase
produces last 2 ATPs of glycolysis by transferring phosphate group from PEP to ADP (step occurs twice for each glucose molecule, thus 2 ATPs)
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