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Lecture 1/18

medial (vertebral) border

lateral (axillary) border

thickest part of bone
head of scapula (glenoid cavity)
neck of scapula inferior to head

superior angle

supraglenoid tubercle

intervertebral discs

thoracic vertebrae

intervertebral foramina

spinous process

transverse process

superior articular facets

inferior articular facets

vertebral foramen

jugular notch (suprasternal notch)

thick, superior border of manubrium


(T3-T4) superior part of sternum.

sternal angle of Louis

body of sternum

(T5-T9) width varies-scalloping of its lateral borders by costal notches

xiphoid process

Midline marker for superior level of liver, central tendon of diaphram
inferior border border of heart
cartilaginous in young people. Bone after 40.

true (vertebrocostal) ribs

1-7. Attach to sternum with own costal cartilages

false (vertebrochondral) ribs

8-10 cartilage joined to cartilage of rib just superior to them. Indirect connection to sternum

floating ribs

11 & 12. have rudimentary cartilages. not connected, end in posterior abdominal musculature


connects upper limb to trunk
sternal end connects with manubrium of sternum.
acromial end joins acromion of scapula.
Medial two thirds of shaft curve anteriorly
lateral third flat and concave anteriorly

medial end

lateral end

superior border

medial two thirds and lateral third-suprascapular notch

inferior angle

lateral (axillary) border

spine of the scapula

continues laterally as flat, expanded acromion


subcutaneous point of shoulder and connects with acromial end of clavicle

supraspinous fossa

infraspinous fossa

subscapular fossa

costal surface of scapula

glenoid fossa

coracoid process

Beaklike, anchors muscles of the arm

infraglenoid tubercle

C-7 vertebra

start of thorax (thoracic vertebra start after this one) has bony proterberance)

vertebra prominens

start of thorax (C-7)

clavicle notch

each side of jugular notch on manubrium.
articulates with sternal (medial) end of clavicle

sternal angle of Louis

(T4-T5, level of 4th disc) opposite second pair of costal cartilages. Clinical landmark (between manubrium & body)

costal notches

articulation with costal cartilages

How many thoracic vertebra?



curved, flat bones, contain bone marrow

three types of ribs

True (vertebrocostal) ribs
False (vertebrochondral) ribs
Floating (free) ribs


wedge-shaped & 2 facets, separted by crest of head.
1 facet for vertebra superior to it
1 facet for connecting numerically corresponding vertebra


connects head with body (shaft) at level of tubercle


junction of neck and body.
(smooth articular part) for connecting corresponding transvers process of vertebra

(rough nonarticular part) for attachment of costatransverse ligament

body (shaft)

thin, flat, curved, most markedly at angle. also has costal groove


where rib turns anterolaterally

costal groove

protects intercostal nerve, vessels

atypical ribs

(1,2, 10-12) are dissimilar

1st rib

broadest (body widest, nearly horizontal)
shortest, most sharply curved.
2 grooves crossing superior surface for subclavian vessels, separated by scalene tubercle and ridge.
one facet on head

2nd rib

thinner, less curved, much longer than first rib.
2 facets on head for T1-T2 vertebrae

10th - 12th rib

one facet on head

11th & 12th rib

short, no necks or tuberclesq

costal cartilages

contribute to elasicity of wall.

intercostal spaces

separate ribs and cartilages from one another. spaces and neurovascular structures are named according to rib forming superior border of space. 11 spaces and nerves.

subcostal space

below 12th riband anterior ramus of spinal nerve T12 is the subcostal nerve

What is scapula and clavical part of?

pectoral girdle


lays over 2-7 ribs,
lies on posterolateral of thorax

posterior surface of scapula

unevenly divided by spine of scapula
into small supraspinous fossa
larger infraspinous fossa

triangular body of scapula

thin, translucent, superior and inferior to scapular spine

Scapula borders are

medial (axillary)
lateral (vertebral)
superior borders
superior, inferior angles

Clavicle purpose

serves as strut (rigid support)
keeps limb away from thorax
enables elevation of ribs for deep inspiration

forms a boundary of cervicoaxillary canal for protection of neurovascular bundle supplying upper limb

transmits shocks from upper limb to axial skeleton

No bone marrow, has spongy bone with shell of compact bone. But considered long bone

conoid tubercle

Present on the inferior surface of the lateral end of the clavicle

xiphos means


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