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26 terms

Chapter 7 Rocks Vocabulary

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batholith
huge, irregularly shaped intrusion that extends deep into the earth's crust
cementation
process by which sediments are cemented together by minerals dissolved in water to form sedimentary rock
compaction
process by which layers of sediments are pressed together to form sedimentary rock
contact metamorphism
type of metamorphism that occurs when rocks are heated by contact with magma or lava
dike
narrow, flat formation of igneous rock formed in vertical cracks in the existing rocks
evaporite
sedimentary rock formed when water evaporates and leaves behind mineral deposits
extrusion
igneous rock that forms on the earth's surface
extrusive rock
igneous rock formed from lava on the earth's surface
foliated
texture of some metamorphic rocks in which mineral crystals are arranged in parallel bands along which rocks tend to break
igneous rock
rock formed by the heating and cooling of hot liquid rock
intrusion
irregular rock formation of intrusive rock formed by magma beneath the earth's crust
laccolith
domelike intrusion that pushes overlying rocks into an arch and has a flat floor
metamorphic rock
rock formed when a sedimentary or igneous rock is changed by heat, pressure or chemical reactions
metamorphism
changing one type of rock into another as a result of tremendous heat, pressure, or chemical reactions
petrologist
scientist who studyes rocks and their mineral composition
porphyry
igneous rock whose cooling rate has changed and thus has two or more different sized crystals
regional metamorphism
type of metamorphism that occurs over large areas when rocks buried deep within the earth are changed by increases in temperature and pressure
rock cycle
the continuous change of rocks from one type to another
sediment
small pieces of rocks, shells, or the remains of plants and animals that have been carried along and deposited by wind, water or ice
sedimentary rock
rock formed from sediments that have been pressed and cemented together
sill
sheetlike mass of igneous rock
stock
intrusion similar to a batholith that has an exposed area of less than 100 square kilometers
strata
layers of sedimentary rock
unfoliated
texture of some metamorphic rockds in which crystals are not arranged in bands and do not break in layers
lava plateau
layers of lava that build up on a flat area on the earth's surface
intrusive rock
igneous rock formed deep within the earth's crust