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clin path LAB I quiz ch 1-3 (wkbk)

uL=microliter
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To seperate plasma from the cellular components, blood tubes should be counterbalanced and centrifuged for _____ mins at ______ rpm.
10; 2000
Icteric serum is what color?
yellow
What color blood collection tube top indicates that heparin is the anticoagulant?
green
MCHC is expressed in
g/dl
Which of the RBC indicates cell size?
MCV
The buffy coat in a spun hematocrit tube consists of
WBCs and platelets
EDTA plasma cannot be used for testing ______ plasma levels because EDTA forms a complex with it.
calcium
Veterinary reference ranges for blood chemistry values
often come with an analyzer and have been established by the company
If a test result is a false positive, it means that the result is
outside the reference range and the disease is absent
Which of the following would not be an acceptable action if a control value is out of range?
ignore the result; it is a simple outlier (sporadic results)
Calibration standards for chemistry analyzers are
used by the manufacturer
The term normal is referring to
reference ranges
Which of the samples can be frozen and successfully thawed for performing an analytic test at a later time?
serum for chemistry testing
If there is only a small amount of serum separated after centrifuging a tube of whole blood, you should
rim/ring the clot and spin again at normal speed and time
To dilute a serum sample for retesting when the value is out of the instrument's linearity range, use
physiologic saline
For hematology tests, clots in EDTA blood are
never acceptable
Regarding the disadvantages of using commercial laboratories, which statement is false?
they often do not adhere to quality control standard
What is the difference between a red-top Vacutainer and one with a mottled red-and-black top?
one contains serum separator gel and the other does not
Which statement concerning EDTA is false?
it is the anticoagulant of choice for blood gas analysis
Which Vacutainer tube does not need to be inverted after collection of a blood sample?
Red top
The total white blood cell count of a healthy adult dog ranges from
6000 to 17,000/uL
What test is usually considered of little diagnostic value?
MCH
An elevated hematocrit is most commonly associated with
dehydration
The hematology analyzer is not functioning properly. A good mathematical method to estimate hemoglobin is
one third the PCV
When collecting blood for a coagulation profile, it is especially important to
minimize vascular trauma during venipuncture
Fluid samples collected through fine-needle aspiration should be collected into
an EDTA tube
A box of reagents for blood chemistry analysis labeled for storage at 8* C should be stored
in the refrigerator
The red-top Vacutainer tube should sit at room temperature for ____ before centrifugation, allowing the clot to form.
30 minutes
Which of these tubes must never be placed on a blood rocker after being filled with blood?
Red top
Once blood has formed a clot, you can reverse this process by
there is no reversal
If you are unable to perform a CBC within 1 hour of blood collection, which of the following is the best method of preservation?
Refrigerate the sample
The mucin clot test is performed on
joint fluid
If a 1:1 dilution of a serum sample is made before analyzing the serum chemistries, the results must be multiplied by
two
Which of these is least likely to interfere with blood chemistry test results?
fasting serum
Which of the following statements is true in regard to using hemolyzed serum in a dry chemistry analyzer?
hemolyzed serum can falsely elevate some results
The Ictotest is used to determine
bilirubinuria
What information do the RBC indices yield?
the size, weight, and hemoglobin concentration of an average RBC
What Vacutainer tube yields plasma via centrifugation?
Green/gray mottled top
An elevated hematocrit can indicate what situation is present?
dehydration
The refractometer is used to determine
total protein
What mineral is found in hemoglobin?
iron
What erythrocyte index gives an indication of the average size of a red blood cell?
MCV
What term is used to describe the ability of a test to determine true positives?
sensitivity
A new in-house test has been developed with 80% sensitivity and 100% specificity. What does this mean?
20% will be false negative
When the spun hematocrit test is done, which of the following can be evaluated?
total protein, buffy coat, plasma color, and PCV
Impendance is
blockage of light or electric current in analytic instruments
Which is these is not a random laboratory error?
anisocytosis
A standard solution is defined as
a control used to calibrate laboratory instruments
a QBC evaluates the blood for
Quantitative buffy coat
Prolonged exposure of serum to the blood cells before the serum is removed from the clot can result in
increased serum phosphorus
For proper calibration what solution should be used to calibrate a refractometer?
distilled water
To separate serum, whole blood should be spun down in a centrifuge at
3500 rpm for 10 minutes
When using a centrifuge, it is important to do the following each time you use it, except
open the lid as the centrifuge is stopping
As a general rule, enough blood should be collected to run any test at least three times. This compensates for all of the following, except
transcription error
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is the anticoagulant of choice for hematology because it
preserves blood cell morphology
The substance that prevents a blood sample from clotting is
heparin
What is the noncellular portion of coagulated whole blood called after is has been centrifuged?
serum
What is the noncellular portion of anticoagulated whole blood called after it has been centrifuged?
plasma
When mailing serum samples to a reference laboratory, which of these would you not want to do?
mail samples out on Saturday
When mailing glass slides, you must not
send slides with samples preserved in formalin
What is the disadvantage of using vacuum blood collection tubes?
withdrawal pressure is not easily controlled
EDTA, sodium citrate, and sodium oxalate anticoagulants work by
binding calcium
Serum should be separated from blood cells in a blood sample as soon as possible because
some chemical constituents will change
What condition will not cause hemolysis?
removing the needle from the syringe to place a blood in a collection tube
Which of the following is not a consideration when choosing the gauge and length of a needle for blood sample collection?
test to be run
If whole blood is allowed to stand at room temperature for an extended time,
glucose levels may decrease
If you are unable to perform chemistry tests on a sample for a week, you should
centrifuge the sample, separate the serum, and freeze it
Diagnostic testing performed in a laboratory setting, outside of the animal's body, is
in vitro testing
Performing a group of blood chemistry tests to evaluate the overall health of an animal is
biochemical profiling
When plasma is required for blood chemistry analysis, the anticoagulant of choice is
sodium or lithium heparin
The anticoagulant used to preserve blood glucose levels for blood chemistry analysis is
sodium fluoride
The preferred sample for most blood chemistry tests is
serum
As a general rule, sufficient blood should be collected from the animal to yield enough serum, plasma, or whole blood to run each test how many times?
3
In terms of approximate equivalents, one drop of serum is equivalent to
50 microliters
To preserve blood constituents in the event that sample analysis is delayed for 8 hours, serum or plasma should be
refrigerated and warmed to room temperature before analysis
For most blood chemistry examinations, serum or plasma samples are stable at room temperature for
4 to 7 hours
For most blood chemistry examinations, serum or plasma samples are stable at refrigerated temperatures for
4 to 7 days
For most blood chemistry examinations, serum or plasma samples are stable at frozen temperatures for
4 to 7 months
Centrifuging blood that has been collected in a plain (red-top) vacuum tube and allowed to clot produces
serum
False evaluations in potassium and inorganic phosphorus levels can be expected in a serum sample that is
hemolyzed
Drawing a blood sample from an animal that has recently eaten may result in a sample that is
lipemic
Centrifuging a blood sample at high speed for a prolonged period may result in
hemolysis
Improper handling of a blood sample after it has been collected may result in
hemolysis
Icteric plasma is what color?
yellow
Which statement is false concerning collection of a plasma sample for blood chemistry analysis?
To separate, allow the sample to clot for approximately 30 minutes, gently remove the clot from the sides of the tube, and centrifuge and remove the plasma
What sample collection cannot be minimized by proper animal preparation or proper sample collection and handling?
icterus
The technology of dry chemistry differs from that of wet chemistry in that the reagents in dry chemistry are supplied
impregnated on slides, cards, or strips
In wet chemistry technology, the amount of chemical substance in the blood is determined by measuring the
light passing through or absorbed by the final sample
In dry chemistry technology, the amount of chemical substance in the blood is determined by measuring the
light reflected from the slide, card, or strip
To verify the accuracy of blood chemistry results in the laboratory, the technician should use
Quality-control sera
What condition will not affect the accuracy of a blood chemistry kinetic enzymatic assay?
final color change of the sample
Laser-flow technology is used in
hematology analyzers
Reflectometry is used in measuring
blood chemistries
What sample is recommended for hemoglobin testing?
whole blood
What part of the CBC is the most accurate procedure?
hematocrit
What part of the CBC cannot be done manually with adequate accuracy?
erythrocyte count
What causes plasma to appear red?
hemolysis
Where is the buffy coat found on the refractometer?
buffy coats are not seen on refractometers
What is the major difference between serum and plasma?
plasma has higher protein levels
What is the term used to describe plasma that appears white or milky?
lipemia
How long must the typical microhematocrit tube be centrifuged for packed cell volume determination?
5 minutes
What measure determined the average size of an erythrocyte?
mean corpusular volume
An MCV value below the normal reference range suggests
microcytosis
What anticoagulant is used most commonly in animal-blood collection for CBCs?
potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
The values of the PCV/TP may indicate that all of the following are present except
infection
Which of the following tests is not included in a routine CBC?
reticulocyte count
Basophilic stippling may be seen in erythrocytes of patients with which of the following pathologic conditions?
lead poisoning
Plasma is composed of
90% water and 10% dissolved substances
The ability to obtain the same results, time after time, on the same sample, is
precision
The extent to which measurements agree with the true value of the quantity measured is
accuracy
The ability of a method to be both accurate and precise is
reliability
The process of monitoring instruments, reagents, tests procedures, technician performance, and the accuracy of reported results is
quality control
Controls are
solutions with known properties that are analyzed for quality-control purposes
The calibrated device used to deliver a specified volume of patient sample when performing blood chemistry analysis is a
pipette
The group of values for a particular blood constituent, derived when a lab has repeatedly assayed samples from a significant number of clinically normal animals of a given species, is called
the reference range
In blood chemistry testing, the substance on which an enzyme acts is the
substrate
The rate of an enzymatic reaction is measured while it is in progress during what type of reactions?
kinetic
Enzymes are proteins most often found in highest concentration
inside cells