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28 terms

Chemistry-Test

STUDY
PLAY
Energy
the ability to do work or produce heat
Work
force acting over a long distance
Heat
A flow of energy due to a temperature difference (larger differences in particle kinetic energy results in more _____transferred)
state function
a property that does not depend on the pathway (change in energy)
temperature
measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up the sample (higher____means faster moving particles)
kinetic energy
energy of motion KE=1/2mv^2
potential energy
energy of position or composition
fuels
high potential energy (potential to release energy as heat)
system
the focus of observations
surroundings
everything else
exothermic
energy flows out of a system (PE decreases)
77 degree pool, a campfire
endothermic
energy flows into a system(PE increases)
entering a hottub, photosynthesis
calorie
amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celsius degree
1000 calories (kilocalorie)
1 food calorie
4.184 joules
1 calorie
specific heat capacity
the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one celsius degree
First law of thermodynamics
the energy of the universe is constant
Enthalpy
energy flow as heat due to a chemical reaction
Pyrolytic cracking
breaking large pretroleum molecules to obtain a larger quanity of molecules
Heat death
work can no longer be preformed
Greenhouse effect
societl dependence on fossil fuels is the effect of the ecosystem and climate, natural process that moderates our temperature
Global warming
recent trend that increasers our temperatures explained by increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
Decay
spontaneous radiation of a particle (alpha, beta, or gamma)
Fission
result of a large nucleus being split to form two smaller ones
Fusion
result of small nuclei being smashed together to form a larger one
Band of stability
region of proton to neutron ratio, which accompany stable isotopes
Entropy
energy spread
Second law of thermodynamics
The entropy of the universe is always decreasing