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the ability to do work or produce heat


force acting over a long distance


A flow of energy due to a temperature difference (larger differences in particle kinetic energy results in more _____transferred)

state function

a property that does not depend on the pathway (change in energy)


measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up the sample (higher____means faster moving particles)

kinetic energy

energy of motion KE=1/2mv^2

potential energy

energy of position or composition


high potential energy (potential to release energy as heat)


the focus of observations


everything else


energy flows out of a system (PE decreases)
77 degree pool, a campfire


energy flows into a system(PE increases)
entering a hottub, photosynthesis


amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one celsius degree

1000 calories (kilocalorie)

1 food calorie

4.184 joules

1 calorie

specific heat capacity

the amount of energy required to change the temperature of one gram of a substance by one celsius degree

First law of thermodynamics

the energy of the universe is constant


energy flow as heat due to a chemical reaction

Pyrolytic cracking

breaking large pretroleum molecules to obtain a larger quanity of molecules

Heat death

work can no longer be preformed

Greenhouse effect

societl dependence on fossil fuels is the effect of the ecosystem and climate, natural process that moderates our temperature

Global warming

recent trend that increasers our temperatures explained by increasing greenhouse gases in the atmosphere


spontaneous radiation of a particle (alpha, beta, or gamma)


result of a large nucleus being split to form two smaller ones


result of small nuclei being smashed together to form a larger one

Band of stability

region of proton to neutron ratio, which accompany stable isotopes


energy spread

Second law of thermodynamics

The entropy of the universe is always decreasing

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