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ACSM Practice answers and explanations
Terms in this set (100)
Which of the following exercise modes allows buoyancy to reduce the potential for musculoskeletal injury?
-Water exercise has gained in popularity because the buoyancy properties of water to help to reduce the potential for musculoskeletal injury and may even allow injured people an opportunity to exercise without further injury. Walking, jogging, and dance activity all may be adapted for water.
In which stage of motivational readiness is a person who is an irregular exerciser?
-an individual who is planning for or irregularly exercising, whereas the stage of action represents a person who is currently exercising.
Which of the following medications is designed to modify blood cholesterol levels?
-Nitrates and nitroglycerine are antianginals. ℬ-blockers are antihypertensives. ℬ-blockers also are designed to reduce BP by inhibiting the action of adrenergic neurotransmitters at the ℬ-receptors, thereby decreasing CO. Antihyperlipidemics control blood lipids, especially cholesterol and LDL. Aspirin helps lower blood platelet coagulation making the blood less "sticky"
Which of the following represents more than 90% of the fat stored in the body and is composed of a glycerol molecule connected to three fatty acids?
-Dietary fats include TG, sterols (eg. cholesterol), and phospholipids. TG represent more than 90% of the fat stored in the body. A TG is a glycerol molecule connected to three fatty acid molecules. The fatty acids are identified by the amount of "saturation" or the number of single or double bonds that link the carbon atoms.
Limited flexibility in which of the following muscle groups increases the risk of low back pain?
-An adequate ROM or joint mobility is requisite for optimal musculoskeletal health. Specifically limited flexibility of the low back and hamstring regions may relate to an increased risk for development of chronic low back pain and disability. Activities that will enhance or maintain musculoskeletal flexibility should be included as a part of a exercise program.
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, sodium, and chloride are examples of ____.
-Minerals are inorganic substances that perform various functions in the body. Many play an important role in assisting enzymes or coenzymes that are necessary for the proper functioning of body systems. They also are found in cell membranes, hormones, muscles, and connective tissues as well as electrolytes in body fluids. Minerals are considered to be either macrominerals (needed in relatively large doses), such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, sodium, and chloride or microminerlas (needed in small amounts), iron, zinc, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, iodine, copper, fluoride.
Which of the following terms represents an imaginary horizontal plane passing through the midsection of the body and dividing it into upper and lower portions?
-the body has three cardinal planes, and each individual plane is perpendicular to the other two. Sagittal divides the body in to left and right parts, and the midsagittal plane is represented by an imaginary vertical plane passing through the midline of the body dividing it into right and left halves.
A PT fails to spot a client performing heavy incline dumbbell presses and the client injures himself when the dumbbell is dropped on his face. Which of the following identify the appropriate type of negligence displayed in this scenario?
-Negligence is a failure to conform one's conduct to a generally accepted standard or duty.
Gross negligence is a conscious, voluntary act (commission), or failure to act (omission), in reckless disregard of the legal duty and of the consequences to the plaintiff.
Which of the following blood pressure (BP) readings would characterize hypertension in the adult?
-140/90 mm Hg
-To be classified as hypertensive, the SBP must equal or exceed 140 mm Hg or the DBP must equal or exceed 90 mm Hg as measured on two separate occasions, preferably days apart. An elevation of either the systolic or diastolic pressure is classified as hypertension
Which of the following stages define people having the greatest risk of relapse?
-People in the action stage are at the greatest risk of relapse. Instruction about avoiding injury, exercise boredom, and burnout is important for those who have recently begun an exercise program. Providing social support and praise are the most important contributors to maintained activity. The exercise professional can emphasize that a short lapse in activity can be learning opportunity and is not a failure.
Uncoordinated gait, headache, dizziness, vomiting and elevated body temperature are signs and symptoms of ____.
-Heat exhaustion and stroke
-Heat exhaustion and heat stroke are serious conditions that result from a combination of the metabolic heat generated from exercise accompanied by dehydration and electrolyte loss from sweating. Signs and symptoms include uncoordinated gait, headache, dizziness, vomiting, and elevated body temperature.
Moving the hand from palm up to palm down with the elbow flexed at 90 degrees ______.
-Internally rotates the radius
-Rotation is a movement of long bones about their long axis. Angular movements decrease or increase the joint angle produced by the articulating bones. The four types of angular movements are flexion, extension, abduction and adduction.
What is the subjects work rate in watts if he pedals on a Monark cycle ergometer at 50 RPM at a resistance of 2.0 kp? Assume that one revolution of the cycle ergometer flywheel is 6m long.
-The steps to answering this question are as follows: write down the known values and convert those values to the appropriate units- 5RPM x 6 m = 30 min
Relative proportions of fat and fat-free tissue can be reported as _______.
-refers to the relative proportions of fat and fat-free tissue in the body. To determine the relative proportion of fat mass or fat-free mass, each is divided into the total body mass
How many calories are contained in a food bar that contains 5f of fat, 30g of carbs including 4g of fiber, and 3g of protein?
-There are 4 kcal of carbohydrate and protein and 9 kcal of fat.
5 x 9 kcal = 45 kcal from fat
3 x 4 kcal = 12 kcal from protein
26 x 4 = 104 kcal from carbohydrate
Total calories in the bar is 161 kcal. Fiber is a carbohydrate but, because it is not absorbed, there are no absorbed carbohydrates and it should not be used in determining calorie content of food
Verbal encouragement, material incentives, self-praise, and use of specific contingency contracts are all examples of ______.
-the positive or negative consequence for performing or not performing a behavior. Positive consequences are rewards that motivate behavior. This can include both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards.
Which physiologic response(s) would be expected to occur under conditions of high ambient temperature?
-Increased heart rate at submaximal workload
-compared with a cool and dry environment a higher metabolic cost exists at submaximal workloads when exercising in the heat and humidity. Thus, the exercise prescription should be altered by lowering the work intensity. Evaporation of sweat cools the skin; therefore wiping away sweat would decrease evaporative cooling and heat loss.
Regular exercise will result in what chronic adaptation in cardiac output (CO) during exercise at the same workload?
-CO does not change significantly, primarily because the person is performing the same amount of work and, thus responds with the same CO. It should be noted, however that the same CO is now being generated with a lower HR and higher stroke volume compared with when the person was untrained.
Which of the following conditions is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density, producing bone porosity and fragility?
-Bone loss is considered by most clinicians to be an inevitable consequence of aging. Osteoporosis refers to a condition that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density, producing bone porosity and fragility, and it refers to the clinical condition of low bone mass and the accompanying increase in susceptibility to fracture from minor trauma.
Studies designed to measure the success of a program based on some quantifiable data that can be analyzed examine ______ .
-Outcomes are designed to measure the success of a program based on the outcome for a patient or client. Outcome studies require quantifiable data that can be analyzed- data that study the success of a program in terms of quantifiable measures. Measuring client satisfaction, level of change, length of time for change to occur, or percentage of clients who reach their goals are other examples of outcomes.
When using the original Borg scale (6-20) for the general public, exercise intensity should be maintained between _____.
-12 and 16
-Although some learning is required on the part of the participant, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) should be considered an adjunct to HR measures. The RPE can be used as a reliable barometer of exercise intensity. ACSM recommends an exercise intensity that will elicit an RPE within a range of 12-16 on the original Borg scale of 6-20.
Rotation of the anterior surface of a bone toward the midline of the body is called _____.
-the turning of bone around its own longitudinal axis or around another bone. Rotation of the anterior surface of the bone toward the midline of the body is medial rotation, whereas rotation of the same bone away from the midline is lateral rotation.
At what level is high-density lipoprotein (HDL) considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease?
-<40 mg . dL
-Risk factors that contribute to the development of CAD include age (men >45yrs; women >55yrs), a family history of myocardial infarction or sudden death (male first degree relatives <55yrs and female first degree relatives <65yrs), cigarette smoking, hypertension (arterial BP >140/90 mm Hg measured on two separate occasions), hypercholeterolemia (total cholesterol >200 mg or 5.2 mmol or Hdl <35 mg.dL or 0.9 mmol), and DM in individuals older than 30 yr or in individuals who have had type 1 diabetes more than 15 yrs or type 2 diabetes in individuals older than 35 years.
Which of the following health history combinations would place an individual into the MODERATE risk category for coronary artery disease (CAD)?
-HDL <40 mg . dL; current smoker; BMI <28.
The low risk category is asymptomatic and has one or no major risk factor for CAD. A person is placed in the moderate-risk category if he or she has two or more major risk factors for CAD. A person in the high-risk category is someone with signs, symptoms of, or known cardiac disease, pulmonary disease and metabolic disease. If a person has high serum HDL cholesterol (>60mg . dL) subtract one risk factors from the sum of positive risk factors because high HDL levels decrease the risk of CAD.
What could be an alternative to the contraindicated, high-risk yoga plough (supine legs overhead) exercise?
-Double knee to chest
-Double knee to chest stretches are safe alternative to the plough. Squats to 90 degrees and lateral neck stretches are considered safe alternative exercises to full squats and full neck rolls, respectively. Flexion with rotation is considered a contraindicated high-risk exercise and is not recommended. An alternative to flexion with rotation is supine curl-ups with flexion followed by rotation.
Which of the following water-soluble vitamins must be consumed on a daily basis?
-Vitamins B complex and C
-Fat soluble vitamins are composed of vitamins A, D, E, and K and are stored in body fat after consumption. Vitamins C and B complex are water-soluble vitamins, must be consumed on a regular basis, and excess amounts are excreted.
Which of the following is NOT true regarding the psychological benefits of regular exercise in the elderly?
-older people who exercise regularly report greater life satisfaction, greater happiness, higher self-efficacy, improved self-concept and self-esteem and reduced psychological stress.
What is angina pectoris?
-Discomfort associated with myocardial ischemia; Angina pectoris is a heart-related chest pain caused by ischemia, which is insufficient blood flow that results from at temporary or permanent reduction of blood flow in one or more coronary arteries. Angina symptoms are usually felt in the chest, neck, shoulder and arm
To determine program effectiveness, psychological theories provide a conceptual framework for assessment and ______.
-Application of cognitive-behavior or motivational principles
-psychological theories are the foundation for effective use of strategies and techniques of effective counseling and motivational skill building for exercise adoption and maintenance. Theories provide a conceptual framework. Within the field of behavioral change, a theory is a set of assumptions that accounts for the relationships between certain variables and the behavior of interest.
Information gathered by way of an appropriate health screening allows the PT to develop specific exercise programs that are appropriate to the individual needs and goals of the client. This is called the ____.
-A well designed health screening provides the exercise leader or HFS with information that can lead to identification of those individuals for whom exercise is contraindicated.
To maximize safety during a physical fitness assessment which of the following items should be addressed?
-All of the above
-Regularly scheduled practices of responses to emergency situations, including a minimum of one announced and one unannounced drill, should take place. Emergency plans should include written, posted emergency plans and numbers.
HR can be measured by counting the number of pulses in a specified time period at one of several locations, including the radial and carotid arteries. Which of the following is a special precaution when taking the carotid pulse?
-If the HR is taken at the carotid artery, do not press too hard of a reflex slowing of the heart can occur and cause dizziness
-If HR is taken at the carotid artery, take care not to press too hard or a reflex slowing of the heart may occur and cause dizziness. Using the thumb to count the carotid pulse may result in an inaccurate count, but this is less of a safety concern than causing dizziness by pressing too hard. HR exceeding 200bpm are no more difficult to count at the carotid artery than at other sites.
When exercise training children, ________.
Increasing the HR of training intensity more than approximately 10% per week increases the likelihood of overuse injuries of bone.
- Increasing the rate of progression of training more than approximately 10% per week is a risk factor for overuse injuries of bone. Exercise programs for children & adolescents should increase physical fitness in the short term and lead to adoption of a physically active lifestyle in the long term.
Which of the following risk factors for the development of CAD has the greatest likelihood of being influenced by regular exercise?
-Regular exercise will decrease SBP and DBP.
Exercise has no effect on age and family history of heart disease and no direct effect on cigarette smoking, although some individuals may choose to quit smoking after beginning to exercise. Regular endurance exercise does increase HDL but it has limited influence on total cholesterol.
At minimum, professionals performing fitness assessments on others should possess which combination of the following?
-CPR and ACSM CPT
-At minimum, professionals performing fitness assessments on others should possess CPR and ACSM CPT certification
Which of the following components of the exercise work inversely with each other?
-Intensity and duration
-intensity and duration of exercise must be considered together and are inversely related. Similar improvements in aerobic fitness may be realized if a person exercises at a low intensity for a longer duration or at a higher intensity for less time.
Which of the following types of muscle stretching can cause residual muscle soreness, is time consuming and typically requires a partner?
-Static stretching is the most commonly recommended approach to stretching. It involves slowly stretching a muscle to the point of individual discomfort and holding that position for a period of 10-30s. Ballistic stretching uses repetitive bouncing-type movements to produce muscle stretch. These movements can produce residual muscle soreness or acute injury.
Failure of a CPT to perform in a generally acceptable standard is called _______.
-Legal issues abound for fitness professionals involved in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and program administration. Legal concerns can develop with the instructor-client relationship, the exercises involved, the exercise setting, the purpose of the programs and exercises used.. Negligence is the failure to perform on the level of a generally accepted standard.
Most sedentary people who begin an exercise program are likely to stop within _______.
-Most sedentary people are not motivated to initiate exercise programs and, if exercise is initiated, they are likely to stop within 3-6 months. In general, participants in earlier stages benefit most from cognitive strategies, such as listening to lectures and reading books without the expectation of actually engaging in exercise.
Reasons for fitness testing of the older adult include ______.
-All of the above
-Fitness testing is conducted in older adults for the same reasons as in younger adults, including exercise prescription, evaluation of progress, motivation and education.
Feeling good about being able to perform an activity or skill, such as finally being able to run a mile or to increase the speed of walking a mile, is an example of an _____.
-Reinforcement is the positive or negative consequence for performing or not performing a behavior. Positive consequences are rewards that motivate behavior.
An important safety consideration for exercise equipment in a fitness center includes ______.
-Flexibility of equipment to allow for different body sizes
-Creating a safe environment in which to exercise is a primary responsibility for any facilities and equipment for use by exercisers, the managers and staff are obligated to meet a standard of care for exerciser safety.
The ACSM recommendation for intensity, duration, and frequency of cardiorespiratory exercise for healthy individuals includes ______.
-Intenisty of 60%-40% HR max, duration of 20-60 minutes and frequency of 3-5 days a week.
-The ability to take in and to use oxygen depends on the helath and integrity of the heart, lungs and circulatory systems. Efficiency of the aerobic metabolic pathways also is necessary to optimize cardiorespiratory fitness. Maximal oxygen uptake may improve between 5% and 30% with training.
A method of strength and power training that involves an eccentric loading of muscles and tendons followed immediately by an explosive concentric contraction is called ____.
-plyometrics is a method of strength and power training that involves an eccentric loading of muscles and tendons followed immediately by an explosive concentric contraction. This stretch-shortening cycle may allow an enhanced generation of force during the concentric (shortening) phase. Most well-controlled studies have shown no significant difference in power improvement when comparing plyometrics with high intensity strength training. The explosive nature of this type of activity may increase the risk for musculoskeletal injury. Plyometrics should not be considered a practical resistance exercise alternative for health/fitness applications but may be appropriate for select athletic or performance needs.
Which of the following personnel is responsible for program design as well as implementation of that program?
-Manager or director
-the characteristics of a good manager or director include designing programs and monitoring the implementation of programs.
What is the purpose of agreements, releases and consent forms?
-To inform the client of participation risks, as well as the rights of the client and the facility
-Agreements, releases, and consents are documents that clearly describe what the client is participating in, the risks involved and the rights of the client and the facility. If signed by the client, he or she is accepting some of the responsibility and risk by participating in this program.
After 30yr of age skeletal muscle strength begins to decline, primarily because of which of the following?
-A loss of muscle mass caused by a loss of muscle fibers
-After 30yr of age, skeletal muscle strength begins to decline. However the loss of strength is not linear, with most of the decline occurring after 50yr of age. By 80yr of age, strength loss usually is in the range of 30%-40%. The loss of strength with aging primarily from a loss of muscle mass, which, in turn, is caused by both the loss of muscle fibers and the atrophy of the remaining fibers.
The HBM model assumes that people will engage in a behavior, such as exercise, when ____.
-There is a perceived threat of heart disease
-the Health Belief model assumes that people will engage in a behavior when there exist a perceived threat of disease and a belief of susceptibility to disease and the threat of disease is severe. This model also incorporates cues to action as critical to adopting and maintaining behavior. The concept of self efficacy (confidence) is also added to this model. Motivation and environmental considerations are not a part of the Health Belief Model
The informed consent document _______.
-Provides an explanation of the test to the client
-Informed consent is NOT a legal document. It does not provide legal immunity to a facility or individual in the event of injury to a client nor does it legally protect the rights of the client. It simply provides evidence that the client was made aware of the purposes, procedures, and risks associated with the test or exercise program. The consent form does not relieve the facility or individual of the responsibility to do everything possible to ensure the safety of the client.
A measure of muscular endurance is ____.
-Number of curl-ups in 1 min
-Three common assessments for muscular endurance include the bench press, for upper body endurance; the push up for upper body endurance; and the curl up (crunch), for abdominal muscular endurance
If a client exercises too much without rest days or develops a minor injury and does not allow time for the injury to heal what can occur?
-An overuse injury
-Overuse injuries become more common when people participate in more cardiovascular exercise by increasing time, duration, or intensity too quickly. A client exercises too much with out time for rest and recovery or develops a minor injury and does not reduce or change that exercise allowing the injury to heal.
The ACSM recommends that exercise intensity be prescribed within what percentage of oxygen uptake reserve range? (VO2 max R)
-40%-60% and 89%
-Several methods are available to define exercise intensity objectively. The ACSM recommends that exercise intensity be prescribed within a range of 64%-70% and 94% of HR max or between 40%-60% and 89% of oxygen uptake reserve.
The ACSM recommends how many repetitions of each exercise for muscular strength and endurance?
-The ACSM recommends that one set of 8-12 reps of each exercise should be performed to volitional fatigue for healthy individuals. Choose a range of reps between 3 and 20 (i.e, 3-5, 8-10, 10-15) that can be performed at a moderate rep duration based on age, fitness level, assessment and ability. The ACSM recommends exercising each muscle group 2-3 nonconsecutive days per week.
Which of the following are changes seen as a result of regular chronic exercise?
-All of the above
-The effects of regular (chronic) exercise can be classified or grouped into those that occur at rest, during moderate exercise, and during maximal effort work. For example, you can measure an untrained individuals HR rest, train the person for several weeks or months and then measure HR rest again to see what change has occurred.
While assessing the behavioral changes associated with an exercise program, which of the following would be categorized under the cognitive process of the Transtheoretical model?
-Key components of the Transtheoretical model are the processes of behavioral change. These processes include five cognitive processes (consciousness raising, dramatic relief, environmental reevalutaion, self-reevaluation, and social liberation) and five behavioral processes (counterconditioning, helping relationships, reinforcement management, self-liberation and stimulus control).
Fitness assessment is an important aspect of the training program because it provides information for which of the following?
-Developing the exercise prescription
-The purpose of the fitness assessment is to develop a proper exercise prescription, to evaluate the rate of progress and to motivate. Progress toward or attainment of a goal is a strong motivator for continued participation in an exercise program
For individuals undertaking nonmedically supervised weight loss initiatives to reduce energy intake, the ACSM recommends weight loss of approximately ____.
-1-2lb per week
-The goal of the exercise component of a weight reduction program should be to maximize caloric expenditure.
Which of the following asssumes that a person will adopt appropriate health behaviors if he/she feels the consequences are severe and feel personally vulnerable?
-Health Belief Model
-Theoretical framework to help explain and predict interventions to increase physical activity. The model originated in the 1950s based on work by Rosenstock.
Identify the appropriate self-directed evaluation tool used as a quick health screening before beginning any exercise program.
-the PAR-Q is a screening tool for self-directed exercise programming. The MMPI is a psychological scale. The RPE-Borg scale is used to measure or to rate perceived exertion during exercise or during an exercise test. The E-ECG would involve continuous electrical heart monitoring during exercise stress test used in a clinical setting when deemed appropriate by a physician
You have examined your patient's health screening documents and obtained physiologic resting measurements and you decide to proceed with a single session of fitness assessments. Identify the recommended order of administration.
-Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility
-To get the best and most accurate information, the following order of testing is recommended: resting measurements, body comp, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular fitness and flexibility.
Implementing emergency procedures must include the fitness center's _____.
-Management and staff
-When an emergency or injury occurs, safe and effective management of the situation will assure the best care for the individual. Implementing emergency procedures is an important part of the training of the staff. In-services, safety plans, and emergency procedures should be a part of the staff training.
Which of the following is a possible medical emergency that a client can experience during an exercise session?
-All of the above
-possible medical emergencies during exercise include heat exhaustion, fainting, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, simple or compound fractures, bronchospasm, hypotension or shock, seizures, bleeding and other cardiac symptoms.
In commercial settings, clients should be more extensively screened for potential health risks. The information solicited should include which of the following?
-All of the above
-different types of health screenings are used for various purposes. In commercial settings, clients should be screened more extensively for potential health risks. At minimum, a personal medical history should be taken.
Generally, low-fit or sedentary persons may benefit from _______.
-Shorter duration, lower intensity, and higher frequency of exercise
-The number of times per day or per week that a person exercises is interrelated with both the intensity and the duration of activity.
What is the planning tool that addresses the organization's short and long-term goals; identifies the steps needed to achieve the goals; and gives the time line, priority, and allocation of resources to each goal?
-the strategic plan addresses strategic decisions of the organization in defining short-and long-term goals and serves as the overarching planning tool. Health & fitness programs, financial plans, risk management efforts and marketing plans only address subsegments within the overall strategic plan
Producing red blood cells, protecting organs and tissues and providing support for the body are all functions of what tissue?
-The bones of the skeletal system act as levers for changing the magnitude and direction of forces that are generated by the skeletal muscles attaching to the bones. The bones of the skeletal system provide structural support for the body through their arrangement in the axial & appendicular skeletal divisions. Blood cells are formed in BONE MARROW
Through which valve in the heart does blood flow when moving from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
-Blood form the peripheral anatomy flows to the heart through the superior and inferior venae cavae into the right atrium. From the right atrium the blood passes through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle, then out through the pulmonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary arteries, and then to the lungs to be oxygenated.
-The bicuspid valve is a similar valve having only two cusps; it is found between the left atrium and left ventricle (LV). Blood leaving the LV will pass through the aortic semilunar valve to the ascending aorta and then out to the systemic circulation.
Which of the following is considered an abnormal curve of the spine with lateral deviation of the vertebral column in the frontal plane?
-The vertebral column serves as the main axial support for the body. The adult vertebral column exhibits four major curvatures when viewed from the sagittal plane. Scoliosis is an abnormal lateral deviation of the vertebral column. Kyphosis is an abnormal increased posterior curvature, especially in the thoracic region. Lordosis is an abnormal, exaggerated anterior curvature in the lumbar region. A primary curve refers to the thoracic and sacral curvatures of the vertebral column that remain in the original fetal positions.
Which of the following will increase stability?
-Lowering the center of gravity
-Lowering the center of gravity will increase stability. Could also be increased by increasing the size of the base of support, by moving the center of gravity closer to the center of the base of support or both.
Which of the following muscle groups is most likely weak when slapping of the foot occurs during heel strike and/or increased knee & hip flexion during swing are observed in running?
-Dorsiflexor weakness tends to foot drop during heel strike. To ensure that the toe does not catch the walking surface, knee and hip flexion increases during swing.
Modifiable primary risk factors for CAD include ____.
-Obesity, DM, tobacco smoking, and sedentary lifestyle
-The primary modifiable risk factors for CAD are tobacco smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, obseity & DM. The primary nonmodifiable risk factors for CAD are advanceed age, gender and family history. Emerging risk factors of CAD are numerous; homocysteine, fibrinogen tissue plasminogen activator, lipoprotein (a) and C-reactive protein.
Many of the major health organizations in the US recommend a minimum of ____ min of phys. activity on most days of the week to achieve significant health benefits and protection from chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease.
Which of the following is an example of increasing self-efficacy by setting several short-term goals to attain a long term goal?
-An application of cognitive-behavioral principles
-Application of cognitive-behavioral principles are the methods used within programs to improve motivational skills as suggested by the assessment.
Establishing specific expectation of what you are willing to do as a counselor and staying focused on exercise and phys. activity issues and behavior skills related to exercise are strategies for handling which type of client?
-The needy participant wants more support than can be given. It's important to establish specific expectations of what is possible and to remain focused on the exercise activity. Often, the primary goal of the needy participant is to gain attention.
**important to remember that the exercise professional is not a trained counselor so it's appropriate to refer that person for additional help
Adults age physiologically at individual rates. Therefore, adults of any specified age will vary widely in their physiologic responses to exercise testing. Special considerations should be given to the older adult when giving a fitness test because:
-Age may be accompanied by deconditioning and disease
-Adaptation to a specific workload is often prolonged in older adults. Test stages in graded exercise tests should be prolonged, lasting at least 3 min, to allow the participant to reach steady state.
Which of the following adaptations would NOT be expected to occur as a result of long-term aerobic training?
-Increase in resting CO
-At rest, CO is not affected by training status. The amount of blooded needed to sustain the body's functions at rest does not differ between those who are trained and those who are sedentary
Compared with running, swimming will result in ________ even if exercise intensity is the same.
-A lower HR
-At any given intensity, HR will be lower during swimming than exercise performed in a standing position, such as running, because of postural differences. While swimming, the body is in a prone position so that the heart's pumping action does not have to overcome the full effects of gravity. Thus, even at rest, stroke volume is at is maximal value. Because of the higher stroke volume evident during submaximal swimming compared with running, the same CO can be achieved with a lower HR during swimming.
An increased in both SBP & DBP at rest and during exercise often accompanies aging. BP usually increases because of ______.
-Decreased arterial compliance & increased arterial stiffness
-a decrease in arterial compliance and an increase in arterial stiffness with age can result in elevated SBP and DBP both at rest and during exercise.
Which condition is commonly associated with a progressive decline in bone mineral density and calcium content in postmenopausal women?
-This bone loss is accelerate din women immediately after menopause
Which of the following is a result of an older person participating in an exercise program?
-Overall improvement in the quality of life and increased independence
-Benefits of such program for the elderly include increased fitness, improved health status, increased independence and overall improvement in the quality of life.
In response to regular resistance training ______.
-Older men and women demonstrate similar or even greater strength gains when compared with younger individuals
-Muscle strength peaks in the mid 20s for both genders and remains fairly stable through the mid 40s. Muscle strength declines by approximately 15% per decade in the sixth and seventh decades and by approximately 30% per decade thereafter. HOWEVER, older men/women demonstrate similar or even greater strength gains when compared to younger individuals in response to resistance training.
Which of the following statements about confidentiality is NOT correct?
-Data should be kept on file for at least 1 yr before being discarded
-There is no accepted minimal or maximal amount of time that data should be stored. Clearly, however, data must be in a confidential manner and discretion must be used when sharing data.
Which of the following statements best describes capital budgets?
-Include the costs of equipment and building or facility expense
-Capital budgets refer to the budgeting of program implementation or facility.
Emergency procedures and safety planning should address which of the following?
-Injury prevention often is overlooked but it is an important part of a facility's emergency procedures and safety program.
What is the most appropriate action in assisting a person having a seizure?
-Do not restrain the person but be sure that he or she is in a safe area
Within a skeletal muscle fiber, large amounts of calcium are stored in the ____.
The amount of blood ejected form the heart per minute is referred to as ____.
-under resting conditions, Co, the amount of blood ejected by the heart per minute is 5 L.min. Co is a function of stroke volume multiplied by HR.
-CO can increase to 25-30 Lmin during maximal effort in an untrained person & 35-40 L min in a well-trained endurance athlete
A male client is a 42 yr old. His father died of a heart attack at age 62 yr. He has a consistent resting BP of 132/86 mm Hg & a total serum cholesterol of 5.4 mmol. Based on his CAD risk stratification, which of the following activities is appropriate?
-Submaximal assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness without a physician supervising
-The patient has only one risk factor, hypercholesterolemia with total serum cholesterol >5.2 mmol. He is however, classified as "older" for exercise purposes because he is older than 40 yr of age. SO, he should have medical clearance & an exercise test before engaging in vigorous exercise.
The definition of cardiorespiratory fitness is ___.
-The coordinated capacity of the heart, blood vessels, respiratory system, and tissue metabolic systems to take in, deliver and use oxygen.
The primary effects of chronic exercise training on blood lipids include _____.
-Decreased TG and increased HDL
-chronic exercise training has its greatest benefit on lowering TG and increasing HDL. changes in total cholesterol or LDL cholesterol are influecned more by dietary habits and body weight than by exercise training
A transient deficiency of blood flow to the myocardium resulting from an imbalance between oxygen demand and oxygen supply is known as _____.
-occurs when blood supply doesn't meet oxygen demand resulting from decreased blood flow to the myocardium.
Special precautions for patients with hypertension include all of the following except _______.
-Avoiding muscle strengthening exercises that involve low resistance
-Low resistance, muscle-strengthening exercises can be performed by those diagnosed with hypertension if they follow appropriate lifting techniques and avoid the valsalva maneuver.
A 62-yr old, obese factory worker complains of pain in his right shoulder on arm abduction; on evaluation decreased ROM and strength are noted. You also notice that he is beginning to use accessory muscles to substitute movements and to compensate. These symptoms may indicate ____.
-Rotator cuff strain or impingement
-the subdeltoid bursa, supraspinatus muscle, and nerves become impinged bewteen the coracoid and acromion process with shoulder abduction.
Which of the following statements regarding cool-down is FALSE?
-Between 1 and 2 min are recommended for an adequate cool-down
-Primary purpose of a cool down is to increase venous return, and this is accomplished by low-intensity, large-muscle activity. This type of activity also aids the removal of lactic acid. Evidence of an effective cool down is an HR of <100bpm and a SBP within 10 mm Hg of preexercise levels
A PT should modify exercise sessions for participants with hypertension by ___.
-Prolonging the cool-down
-A prolonged cool-down of 5-10 min will enhance venous return & hypotensive effects
The HBM model assumes that people will engage in a given behavior, such as increasing their level of daily activity, when ___.
-Only A and B of the above
-The HBM model suggests this when there is a perceived threat of disease, a belief that they are susceptible to disease, and that the threat is severe. The individual will take action depending on whether the benefits of the activity outweigh the barriers.
A 35yr old woman reduced her caloric intake by 1200 kcal.wk How much weight will she lose in 26wk?
-Multiply the number of cals per week she is eliminating by the number of weeks:
1200 x 26 wk = 31200
-Now divide by 3500 to get the total lbs she'll lose:
31200/3500 total kcal = 8.9 or about 9lb over 26 weeks
From the prev. question, how much weight will she lose in 26wk if she integrated a 1-mi walk three times per week into her weight loss program?
-1 mile = 300kcal. Multiply 300 kcal by 26 wks to determine the total amount of calories she expends by walking:
300kcal x 26 wk = 7800 kcal
-Divide 7800 by 3500 so ee how many pounds of fat this represents:
7800/3500 = 2.22 lb or about 2lb
The metabolic syndrome includes dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, elevated BP, and what other component?
-the major component of the metabolic syndrome and is a better predictor of CAD. Amenorrhea is part of the female athlete triad. Laxative use is common in bulimia
Which of the following is a FALSE statement regarding an informed consent?
-Negligence, improper test administration, inadequate personnel qualifications and insufficient safety procedures are all items NOT covered by the informed consent.
-The informed consent form is not a legal document
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