32 terms

AP Human Geography: Population Vocabulary

Vocabulary from the Advanced Placement course of Human Geography regarding population
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Agricultural Density
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied solely on hunting and gathering
Arithmetic Population Density
The total number of people divided by the total land area
Census
A complete enumeration of a population
Child Mortality Rate
The number of annual deaths in the age group of 1-4 years per 1,000 in that group
Crude Birth Rate (CBR)
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society
Demographic Transition
The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates and a low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population
Demography
The scientific study of population characteristics
Dependency Ratio
The number of people under the age of 15 and over the age of 64, compared to the number of people active in the labor force
Dot Map
A map type that uses a dot symbol to show the presence of a feature
Doubling Time
The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase
Ecumene
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
Epidemiological Transition
The distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition
Epidemiology
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR)
The total number of annual deaths among infants under one year old for every 1,000 live births in a society
Life Expectancy
The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions
Medical Revolution
The medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate
Newborn Mortality Rate
The total number of annual deaths among newborns for every 1,000 live births in a society
One-Child Policy
A policy of population control in China, where a married couple is allowed only one child
Overpopulation
A case where the number of people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living
Pandemic
A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population
Physiological Population Density
The number of people per unit of arable land
Population Distribution
Term applied to how a group of people in an area are spread out across it
Population Explosion
The rapid growth of the world's population during the 20th century, attended by ever-shorter doubling times and accelerating natural increase rates
Population Pyramid
A bar graph that displays a country's population by age and gender
Restrictive Population Policies
Government-made policies that restrict having a certain number of offspring by law, such as China's one-child policy, which serves to decrease the natural increase rate
Sex Ratio
The number of males per 100 females in a population
Stationary Population Level
The level in which a population has a basically even distribution of age groups
Total Fertility Rate
The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
Zero Population Growth (ZPR)
A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate is zero
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