Geography (forces that shape coats)

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Terms in this set (...)

The fetch
The distance that the wind blows over the water
Oscillation waves
Waves that do not break (swell)
Translation waves
Waves that break
Swash
White water that runs up the beach
Backwash
Water that returns back down the beach
Constructive waves
Waves that build up the beach
Destructive waves
Waves that erode the shoreline
Hydraulic action
Force of water breaks up material
Abrasion
Material carried by water scratches against the rocks
Attrition
Rock fragments knock against each other resulting in the rock fragments becoming rounded and smaller
Corrosion
Salt water dissolves rocks
Solution
Also known as corrosion
Scouring
This occurs at the base of the cliff as the waves break and swirl around, gradually removing loose rock
Wave pounding
The sheer force of waves hitting against the cliff wave
Coastal transport
The second process operating at the coast is transport
Traction
Where they roll along the bed when the waves pick up enough energy
Saltation
Where during times of higher wave energy the particles are picked up and then dropped again as the wave looses its energy
Longshore drift
The process by which sand and pebbles are moved along a beach by the movement of waves
Coastal deposition
Material is moved up the beach by the swash at an angle which is controlled by the prevailing wind.
Erosion
The wearing away and removal of material
Deposition
The dropping of material
Headlands
Resistant outcrops of rock sticking out into the sea
Bays
Indents in the coastlines between two headlines
Caves,arches,stacks,stumps
Once a headland has formed it is then exposed to the full force of destructive waves and it gradually begins to erode
Cliffs
These are steep rock faces along the coastline, they tend to form along concordant coastlines with resistant rocks parallel to the coast
Wave-cut platform
As the cliffs retreat, a gently sloping rocky platform is left at the base
Arches
Two caves eroding back into each other, passes right through the headland
Stacks
Column of rock which stands separate from the rest of the headland
Stumps
A stack that continues to erode, eventually collapsing which will be covered by water at high tide
Caves
Gradually these cracks get larger developing into small...