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Americans with Disabilities Act

an act that prohibits discrimination against the disables passed in 1992


A term used to refer to a communities rescinding tax breaks when firms don't deliver promised jobs

Code of Ethics

A formal, written set of ethical standards that guide an organizations actions


People or organizations that compete for customers or resources

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

the notion that corporations are expected to go above and beyond following the law and making a profit, to take actions that will benefit the interests of society as well as of the organization


those who pay to use an organizations goods or services

Demographic Forces

influences on an organization arising from changes in the characteristics of a population such as age, gender, and ethnic origin


a person or organization that helps another organization sell its goods and services to customers


All the ways people are alike and unalike- the differences and similarities in age, gender, race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation, capabilities, and socio-economic background


the belief that ones native country, culture, language, abilities, and/ or behavior are superior to those of another culture

Economic Forces

General economic conditions and trends- unemployment, inflation, interest rates, economic growth- that may affect an organizations performance

Ethical Behavior

Behavior accepted as "right" as opposed to "wrong" according to recognized ethical standards

Ethical Climate

a term that refers to employees perception about the extent to which work environments support ethical behavior

Ethical Dilemma

A situation in which you have to decide whether to pursue a course of action that may benefit you or your organization but that is unethical or illegal


generally accepted standards of right and wrong that influence behavior; these standards may vary among countries and cultures

External Dimensions of Diversity

Human differences that have an element of choice; they consist of the personal characteristics that people acquire, discard or modify throughout their lives

External Stakeholders

People or groups in the organization's external environment that are affected by it. Includes task and general environment

General Environment

Also called macro-environment; in contrast to the task environment, it includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political/legal, and international

Glass Ceiling

The metaphor for an invisible barrier preventing women and minorities from being promoted to top executive jobs

Government Regulators

Regulatory agencies that establish ground rules under which organizations may operate

Individual Approach

One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by what will result in the individuals best long term interests, which ultimately is in everyone's self-interest

Insider Trading

The illegal trading of a companies stock by people using confidential company information

Internal Dimensions of Diversity

The human differences that exert a powerful, sustained effect throughout every stage of people's lives (gender, age, race, etc.)

Internal Stakeholders

Employees, owners, and the board of directors (if any)

International Forces

changes in the economic, political, legal, and technological global system that may affect an organization

Justice Approach

One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by respect for impartial standards of fairness and equity


Also called general environment; includes six forces: economic, technological, sociocultural, demographic, political-legal, and international

Moral-Rights Approach

One of four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by respect for the fundamental rights of human beings


Those who can claim the organization as their legal property


The stable, psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity


act of making charitable donations to benefit humankind

Political-Legal Forces

changes in the way politics shape laws and laws shape the opportunities for and threats to an organization

Ponzi Scheme

a scheme in which cash is used from newer investors to pay off older ones

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002

Often shortened to SarbOx or SOX; act establishing requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies and penalties for non-compliance

Social Responsibility

Manager's duty to take action that will benefit societies interests as well as the organization's

Sociocultural Forces

influences and trends originating in a country, society, or culture; human relationships and values that may affect an organization

Special-Interest Groups

Groups whose members try to influence specific issues


People whose interests are affected by an organizations activities

Strategic Allies

Describes the relationship of two organizations that join forces to achieve advantages that neither can perform as well alone


A person or organization that provides supplies -- raw materials, services, equipment, labor, or energy -- to other organizations

Task Environment

Eleven groups that present workers with daily tasks to handle: customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, employment groups, local communities, financial institutions, government regulators, special interest groups, and mass media

Technological Forces

New developments in methods for transforming resources into goods or services


Working at a job that requires less education than one has

Utilitarian Approach

One of the four approaches to solving ethical dilemmas; ethical behavior is guided by what will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people

Value System

The pattern of values within an organization


Abstract ideals that guide ones thinking and behavior across all situations; the relatively permanent and deeply held underlying beliefs and attitudes that help determine a person's behavior


An employee who reports organizational misconduct to the public

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