25 terms

Plate Tectonics

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basalt
a dark rock with a fine texture which makes up oceanic crust
granite
a rock that is light in color, has a coarse texture and makes up continental crust
mantle
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
lithosphere
a rigid layer made of the uppermost part of the mantle and crust
asthenosphere
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
crust
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the Earth
outer core
a layer of hot liquid iron and nickel surrounding the inner core
radiation
the direct transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
convection
the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a fluid
conduction
the direct transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another that is touching
convection currents
the movement of a fluid caused by differences in temperature
Pangaea
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago
Continental Drift
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
Mid-Ocean Ridge
An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
Sonar
a device used to determine the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
subduction
the process where oceanic crust sinks into a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor where ocean crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
fault
a break or crack in Earth's lithosphere along which rocks move
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, due to convection currents in the mantle
transform
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart