25 terms

Plate Tectonics


Terms in this set (...)

a dark rock with a fine texture which makes up oceanic crust
a rock that is light in color, has a coarse texture and makes up continental crust
the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
a rigid layer made of the uppermost part of the mantle and crust
the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats
the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the Earth
outer core
a layer of hot liquid iron and nickel surrounding the inner core
the direct transfer of energy through space by electromagnetic waves
the transfer of thermal energy by the movement of a fluid
the direct transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another that is touching
convection currents
the movement of a fluid caused by differences in temperature
The name of the single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago
Continental Drift
The hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth's surface
Mid-Ocean Ridge
An undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced
a device used to determine the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
the process where oceanic crust sinks into a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley along the ocean floor where ocean crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
a break or crack in Earth's lithosphere along which rocks move
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant motion, due to convection currents in the mantle
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart