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the entire group of individuals about which we want information


a part of the population from which we actually collect information, used to draw conclusions about entire population

sampling design

describes how to choose a sample from the population

convenience sampling

sample selected by taking the members of the population that are easiest to reach, can produce unrepresentative data

voluntary response sample

consists of people who choose themselves by responding to a broad appeal. Voluntary response samples are biased because people with strong opinions are most likely to respond

simple random sample (SRS)

of size n, consists of individuals from the population chosen in such a way that every set of individuals has an equal chance to be in the sample actually selected

table of random digits

a long string of digits 0-9 with two properties
1. each entry in the table is equally likely to be any of the ten digits 0-9
2. the entries are independent of each other, that is knowledge of one part of the table gives no information about any other part

random sampling

the use of impersonal chance to avoid bias, is the basic idea of sample design


process of drawing conclusions about a population on the basis of sample data


when some groups in the population are left out of the process of choosing the sample


occurs when an individual chosen for the sample can't be contacted or refuses to participate

response bias

when the subject tells the interviewer what they want to hear rather than what actually happened to gain approval

observational study

observes individuals and measures variables of interest but does not attempt to influence responses. Purpose is to describe some group or situation.


deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in order to observe their responses. Purpose is to study whether treatment causes a change in the response.


when two variables cannot be distinguished from one another when determining their effects on a response


individuals studied in an experiment


explanatory variables in an experiment


any specific experimental condition applied to the subjects.

randomized comparative experiment

an experiment that uses both comparison of two or more treatments and random assignment of subjects to treatment

control, randomize, enough subjects

basic principles of statistical design
1. _____the effects of lurking variables on the response, most simply by comparing two or more treatments
2. ______ to assign subjects to treatments
3. Use _______ in each group to reduce chance variation in results

statistically significant

an observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance


a dummy treatment


experiment in which neither the subjects nor the people who interact with them know which treatment each subject is receiving.

matched pair design

compares two treatments, choosing pairs of subjects that are as closely matched as possible, using chance to decide which subject gets the treatment and which does not.

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