31 terms

Male UG Dipgragm class note

Superficia and deep pouch
We loose campers fascia as we transition from the anterolateral abdominal wall to the perineal region. There is no no fat (campers fascia) around the shaft of the penis. It is replaced by connective tissue

This CT is Dartos Tunic or the dartos layer which invest dartos muscle a smooth mucsle. Dartos layer is continous with the ishioanal fossa in the perineum.
Dartos fascia in Males
In the male the dartos layer contains a smooth muscle that will insert into the skin of the dermiss called Dartos muscle.

Cnotraction of dartos muscle pulls the skin on the skin of the scrotum. The scrotum becomes smaller and dimpled.

Dartos works with cremaster muscle to regulate testicular temperature

dartos response to parasympathetic innervation.
Colles Fascia
When scarpa's fasca leaves the anterior abdominal wall it becomes Colles fascia.

Colles fascia formes the inferior border of the UG triangle and seperates the UG and AG triangles. therefore fluid in the superficail pouch may enter the skin of the scrotum and around the shaft of the penis and even seive back into the abdominal cavity but it may not enter the the anal triangle. there is NO communication between the UG and AG triangles due the protection of colles fascia

Colles fascia is continuous with the superficial fascia of UG diapgragm
Boundries of the superficial pouch
Lies between the inferior fascia of the the UG diaphragm, the perineal membrane and the membraneous layer of the superficail perineal fascia, Colles's fascia. Anything between colles fascia and the perineal mebrane is in the superficial pouch
Contents of the Superficial pouch
1.Transverse perineal muscle
2. the ishiovarvernosus muscles
3. the crus of the penis or clitoris
4.the bulbospongiosus muscles
5. the bulb of the penis or vestibular bulbs,
6.the central tendon of the perinuem,
7.the greater vestibular glands
8. branches of internal pudendal vessel,
9. the perineal nerve and vessels
Deep perineal pouch
lies between the superior and inferiro fascia of the UG diaphragm.

1. Deep trasnverse perineal muscle,
2. sphincter urethrae muscle
3. bulbourethra glands (males),
4. membranous urethra,
5. branches of internal pudendal nerves and vessels
Perineal body and muscle attachements
The perineal body is a subcutaneous thickening of CT with lost of fibrouse CT. Its muscle attachements are
1. Bulbospongiosus
2. superficial transverse perineal
3. external urethra sphincter
Spermatic cord
Not involve with moving semen or urine. It acts as a sheathe around erectile tissue
Arises from the inner surface of ishcial tuberosity and the ischiopubic rami. Strictly skeletal muscle around the shaft of the penis. It helps flex the anus, and (in males) stabilize the erect penis or (in females) tense the vagina during orgasm. Kegel exercises (also known as pelvic floor exercises) can help tone the ischiocavernosus muscle.

IschiocavernosusIt inserts into corpus carvenosum:(crues of penis/clitoris), compresses the crus penis and deep dorsal vein, and retards the return of the blood through the veins, and thus serves to maintain the organ erect.
These are paired muscles arises from perineal body(both sexes) and bulb of penis in males. Inserts into corpus spongiosum & perineal membrane in males and the dorsum of clitoris in females

Its the muscle that is contracted at the termination of urne to force the remining urine out the urethra.

It has an erctile tissue, it engorges blood and acts as a trugid sleeve and acts to maintain an erection. It coats the bulb of the penis.
bulb of the penis
attaches to the perineal memebrnae. when it enters the shaft of the penis t becomes the corpus spongiosum.
Corpus spongiosum
Has less erctile tissue because we do nto want it to compress the urethra
Crus of the penis
is the main erectile tissue. it forms the corpus carvenosusm in the shaft of the penis. it is an extension of the crus of the penis into the shaft but it is not anchored.

the main function of copus cavernosusm is to maintain an erection. the crus do not fuse
expansin of corpus spongiosum on penis
expansion of corpus spongiosum distally covers the blunt end of the corpus cavernosusm. It forms a cap around it.
Urethra male
Is a condition of uncircumcised penis whereby the foreskin retracts during an erection but when the penis becomes flaccid following the end of an erection the prepuce does not cover the glands
Is a condition in which the foreskin or prepuce that covers the glands cannot be fully retracted to reveal the gland due to a narrow opening of prepuce

during an erection the foreskin does not retract off of the penis and it can be painful
inflamation of the foreskin. Due to poor hygiene and not cleaning the foreskin
Deep Artery of the penis
branch of the Internal pudendal artery. brings high presure arterial blood to corpus cavernosum and causes erection
Bucks fascia
Deep fascia of the shaft of penis, deep to colles fascia. Surrounds erectile tissue. It surrounds coprus spongiosum and corpus cavernosum
Deep dorsal vein of the penis
Lies in the gutter beween the 2 corpus cavernosums. It drains erectile tisse and maintain an erection.

it dumps into the inferior pubic symphsis and drain nto the pelvic plexus around the prostate gland
Helecine arteries
these are small branches of the deept artery of the penis in penis sinosoids. They are coiled to reduce blood flow when penis is not erect.

they uncoil during an erection, fills with blood and dumps blood to the penis sinusoids.
perineal nerve
Perineal nerve is a mixed nerve. it is a branch of the pudendal nerve. Innervates the skin of the scrotum, and motor innervation to muscles of the UG diaphragm. Its main trunk stays n the superficial pouch. It is the nerve for all the muscles of the UG diaphragm
Pudendal nerve
Three bracches are 1. Inferior rectal nerve 2. Perineal nerve 3. Dorsal nerve of the penis.

It gives inferior rectal nerve then it continous into colles fascia into the UG traingle and then give the perineal nerve
Arteries of perinuem ; Male
The internal pudendal artery is a brach of the anterior division of the Internal iliac artery. It gives of the inferior rectal artery in the ishioanal fossa. Then it courses to the UG triangle to give perineal artery to the superficial pouch.

It then continous as Internal pudendal artery pierces colles fascia and into the deep pouch. In the deep pouch it gives its two terminal branches the dorsal artery of the penis and the deep artery of the penis going to the crus.

The nerve does not enter the The deep pouch.
Deep perineum
Bulbourethra gland
Bulbourethra or Cowper's gland releases its secretions before the bulk of ejaculation. Secretes alkhaline to neutralize the acidity of the urethra & vagina. secretions considered pre-ejaculate

They are homologous to Bartholin's glands in females.

It atrophies with age. it is considered an accessory reproductive gland. it is different from other accessory glands in that it does not store its secretions
External urethral sphincter
surrounds the urethra. it is voluntary skeletal muscle, innervated by perineal nerve and it regulate urine flow.

perineal nerve supplies other muscles of the deep and superficial pouch
arteries and veins of the perinuem
pelvis and perineum
Urinary bladder