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121 terms

Robles Finals Study Guide

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botany
the study of plants
zoology
the study of animals
entomology
the study of insects
anatomy
the study of body structure
genetics
the study of heredity
ecology
the study of interaction of living things and their environment
cytology
the study of structures and functions of cells
paleontology
the study of fossil animals and plants
Robert Hooke
a English scientist who was the first person to see cells from thin slices of cork using a three-lens compound microscope
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
a Dutch tradesman who was one of the first people to describe living cell and drew animalcules using a single-lens microscopes
Scanning Electron Microscope
a microscope that scans the surface of a specimen with a beam of electrons and the specimen's surface is usually coated with a very thin layer of a metal that deflects the electrons
Transmission Electron Microscope
a microscope that transmits electrons through a thin slice of a specimen, it makes a two-dimensional image similar to that of a light microscope, but with a much higher magnification
cell theory
-all organisms are made of cells
-all existing cells are produced by other living cells
-the cell is the most basic unit of life
Matthias Schleiden
a German scientist that was first to note that plants are made of cells
Theodor Schwann
a German scientist that concluded that all living things are made of cells
Rudolf Virchow
a German scientist that proposed that all cells come from other cells
prokaryotic cells
cell that don't have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
eukaryotic cells
cells that have a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
cytoskeleton
a network of proteins that is constantly changing to meet the needs of a cell
microtubules
long hollow tubes that give the cell its shape and act as "tracks" for the movement of organelles
cytoplasm
fills the space between the nucleus and the cell membrane in eukaryotes
cytosol
the fluid portion, excluding the organelles, of the cytoplasm and consists mostly of water
nucleus
the storehouse for most of the genetic information, or DNA
nuclear envelope
the cell's DNA enclosed in a double membrane
pores
holes in the nuclear envelope that allow molecules to pass between the nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleolus
a dense region in the nucleus where tiny organelles essential for making proteins are assembled
ribosomes
a combination of proteins and RNA molecules that link amino acids together to form proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
an interconnected network of thin folded membranes that produce proteins and lipids
rough endoplasmic reticulum
an endoplasmic reticulum that produce modified proteins with sugar chains added to it
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
an endoplasmic reticulum that produce lipids and performs a variety of other specialized function such as breaking down drugs and alcohol
the golgi apparatus
closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces that process, sort, and deliver proteins
vesicles
small membrane-bound sacs that divide some materials from the rest of the cytoplasm and transport these materials from place to place within the cell also called blebs
mitochondria
the powerhouse of the cell that supplies energy to the cell, has its own ribosomes and DNA
vacuole
a fluid-filled sac used for the storage of materials needed by a cell
central vacuole
a vacuole that is in a plant that usually takes up most of the space inside a plant cell
lysosomes
suicide sacks that are produced by the golgi body that consists of a single membrane surrounding powerful digestive enzymes, that act as a clean up crew for the cell
centrosome
a small region of cytoplasm that produces microtubules, and in animal cells, it contains two small structures called centrioles
centrioles
cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules arranged in a circle, the two centrioles are perpendicular to each other and they function in cell division. They have 0 groups of 3 arrangement of the protein fibers
cell wall
a rigid layer in plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria, that surrounds the cell membrane which gives protection, support, and shape to the cell
chloroplasts
organelles that carry out photosynthesis, a series of complex chemical reactions that convert solar energy into energy-rich molecules the cell can use
organism
an individual living thing
population
a group of the same species that lives in one area
community
a group of different species that live together in one area
ecosystem
all of the organisms as well as the climate, soil, water, rocks, and other nonliving things in a given area
biome
a major regional or global community of organisms, usually classified by the climate conditions and plant communities
biotic factors
living thing, such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria
abiotic factors
nonliving things such as moisture, temperature, wind, sunlight, and soil
biodiversity
the assortment, or variety of living things in an ecosystem
keystone species
a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem
producers
organisms that get their energy from nonliving resources, meaning they make their own food, also called autotrophs
consumers
organisms that get their energy by eating other living or once-living resources, such as plants and animals, also called heterotrophs
chemosynthesis
the process by which an organism forms carbohydrates using chemicals, rather than light, as an energy source
food chain
a sequence that links species by their feeding relationships, this model chain only follows the connection between one producer and a single chain of consumers within an ecosystem
herbivores
organisms that eat only plants
carnivores
organisms that eat only animals
omnivores
organisms that eat both plants and animals
detritivores
organisms that eat detritus, or dead organic matter
decomposers
detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compound
specialist
a consumer that eats one specific organism or feed on a very small number of organisms
generalists
consumers that have a varying diet
trophic levels
the levels of nourishment in a food chain
food web
a model that shows the complex network of feeding relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem
habitat
all of the biotic and abiotic factors in the area where an organism lives, these factors include all aspects of the environment, including the grass, the trees, and the watering holes (where a species lives)
ecological niche
all of the physical, chemical, and biological factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce (how a species lives within its habitat)
competitive exclusion
when two species are competing for the same resources, one species will be better suited to the niche, and the other species will be pushed into another niche or become extinct
ecological equivalents
species that occupy similar niches but live in different geographical regions
competition
occurs when two organisms fight for the same limited resources
interspecific competition
occurs when two different species compete for a limited resource, such as space
intraspecific
when individuals of a particular species struggle against one another for limited resources
predation
the process by which one organism captures and feeds upon another organism
symbiosis
a close ecological relationship between two or more organisms of different species that live in direct contact with one another
mutualism
an interspecies interaction in which both organisms benefit from one another
commensalism
a relationship between two organisms in which one receives an ecological benefit from another, while the other neither benefits nor is harmed
parasitism
a relationship similar to predation in that one organism benefits while the other is harmed
ectoparasite
a parasite that makes its home on the exterior of an organism, attaching itself to the outside of the host and usually feeding on its fluids
endoparasite
a parasite that lives in the tissues and organs of a host where, safely hidden, they feed on the nutrients ingested by their host
population density
a measurement of the number of individuals living in a defined space
population dispersion
the way in which individuals of a population are spread in an area or a volume
clumped dispersion
individuals may live close together in groups in order to facilitate mating, gain protection, or access food resources
uniform dispersion
territorialitty and intraspecies competition for limited resources lead to individuals living at specific distances from one another
random dispersion
individuals are spread randomly within an area of a volume
survivorship curve
a generalized diagram showing the number of surviving members over time from a measured set of births
immigration
the movement of individuals into a population from another population
emigration
the movement of individuals out of a population and into another population
expotential growth
occurs when a population size increases dramatically over a period of time
logistic growth
when a population begins with a period of slow growth followed by a brief period of exponential growth before leveling off at a stable size
carrying capacity
the maximum number of individuals of a particular species that the environment can normally and consistently support
population crash
a dramatic decline in the size of a population over a short period of time
limiting factor
the factor that has the greatest effect in keeping down the size of a population
density-dependent limiting factors
limiting factors that are affected by the number of individuals in a given area
density-independent limiting factors
the aspects of the environment that limit a population's growth regardless of the density of the population
succession
the sequence of biotic changes that regenerate a damaged community or create a community in a previously uninhabited area
primary succession
the establishment and development of an ecosystem in an area that was previously uninhabited
pioneer species
the first organisms that live in a previously uninhabited area
secondary succession
the reestablishment of a damaged ecosystem in an area where the soil was left intact
biotechnology
the branch of molecular biology that studies the use of microorganisms to perform specific industrial processes
animalcules
single-celled organisms swimming a drop of pond water observed by Leeuwenhoek
spontaneous generation
the supposed production of living organisms from nonliving matter, as inferred from the apparent appearance of life in some infusions
cilia
an eyelash, or a delicate hairlike structure that resembles one
tropical rain forest
this biome has warm temperatures and abundant rainfall occur all year
tropical grassland
this biome has temperatures are warm throughout the year, with definite dry and rainy seasons
temperate grassland
this biome is dry and warm during the summer; most precipitation falls as snow during the winter
desert
this biome has a very dry climate
temperate rain forest
this biome has one long wet season and a relatively dry summer
taiga
this biome has long, cold winters and short, warm, humid summers
tundra
subzero temperatures are the norm during the long winter, and there is little precipitation for this biome
canopy
the uppermost branches of trees
epiphytes
plants that grow above the ground on the branches of trees
Robert Brown
scottish botanist who discovered the cell nucleus
grassland
an area where the primary plant life is grass
deciduous trees
trees that have adapted to winter temperatures by dropping their leaves and going dormant during the season
coniferous trees
trees that retain their needles all year
habitat fragmentation
something that occurs when a barrier forms the prevents an organism from accessing its entire home range
introduced species
any organism that was brought to an ecosystem as the result of human actions
antibodies
proteins made by B cells that destroy pathogens
erythrocyte
red blood cell
lymphocyte
white blood cell
binomial nomenclature
a system that gives each species a two-part scientific name using Latin words
genus
first part of the scientific name which includes one ore more physically similar species that are thought to be closely related
species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can reproduce and have fertile offspring
Carlous Linnaeus
the father of taxonomy