179 terms

Nutrition - Chapter 1 + ID

Nutrition: An Applied Approach Chapter 1
scurvy is a deficiency in ______
vitamin C
a disease that comes on slowly and can persist for years is referred to as a _____ _____
chronic disease
pellagra is a deficiency of _____
niacin is a "_"-vitamin
poor nutrition is associated with 3 main chronic diseases:
1) heart disease
2) stroke
3) diabetes
the two main goals of a healthful diet are:
1) prevent nutrient-deficiency diseases (i.e. scurvy and pellagra)
2) lower the risk for chronic diseases (i.e. type 2 diabetes and heart disease)
6 types of nutrients:
1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) protein
4) water
5) minerals
6) vitamins
3 types of lipids:
1) fats
2) oils
3) sterols
the term organic is used to denote nutrients that contain both ____ and ____
carbon and hydrogen
4 types of nutrients that are organic:
1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) protein
4) vitamins
____ and ____ are 2 (of 6) nutrients that are NOT organic
1) minerals
2) water
alcohol is considered to be both a ____ and a ____
drug; toxin
____ are nutrients that provide energy
macronutrients include these 3 categories:
1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) protein
in contrast with macronutrients, micronutrients don't supply the body with ____
the energy in food is measured in units called ____
kilocalories (kcal)
a kilocalorie is the amount of _____ required to raise the temperature of _____ kilo (/____ pounds) of _____ by _____ degree _____
heat; 1 (/2.2); water; 1; Celsius
the energy found in 1 gram of carbohydrate is equal to ____ kcal
1 kilocalories is equal to _____ calories
protein provides ____ kcal per gram
alcohol provides _____ kcal per gram
fat provides ____ kcal per gram
____ are the primary source of fuel for our body
carbohydrates are particularly useful for the ____ and during _____
brain; exercise
carbo- refers to _____, while hydrate refers to ____
carbon; water
carbohydrates are composed of chains of:
1) hydrogen
2) oxygen
3) carbon
7 types of food that contain carbohydrates
grains, vegetables, sugar in fruit, legumes, dairy, seeds and nuts
lipids are _____ in water
1) what are fats made of?
2) lipids contain less _____ and _____ than fats
3) what does this mean?
1) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
2) oxygen, hydrogen
3) that lipids can pack more tightly together, yielding higher energy per gram
fats are important for our body when _____ or during _____-_____ _____
resting; low-intensity exercise
our body is capable of storing large amounts of fat as _____ tissue
fats are important for the transport of ____ in our _____ because some [answer 2] are only soluble in _____
vitamins; blood; fat
solid fats are things like ____ and ____
butter; margarine
what are proteins made up of?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
within proteins, these 4 elements assemble into blocks called ____ ____
amino acids
what is the main use of protein in our bodies? what is it not mainly used for?
new cell creation and tissue rebuilding
NOT a primary source of energy
proteins are also important in regulating the breakdown of _____ and our ____ ____
food; fluid balance
micronutrients assist in:
the regulation of body functions
3 types of micronutrients:
water, minerals, vitamins
we need large amounts of _____ but small amounts of _____
macronutrients, micronutrients
____ are organic compounds that help regulate our body's functions
do vitamins contain energy, yes or no?
____ is the process by which micronutrients are broken down into smaller molecules that our body can absorb and use
vitamins are essential to ____ ____
energy metabolism
vitamins assist in releasing and using the energy from:
1) carbohydrates
2) protein
3) lipids
vitamins are classified in 2 ways:
1) water soluble
2) fat soluble
____ are inorganic substances
minerals don't contain ____ and ____
carbon; hydrogen
true or false: minerals are large, but the body can break them down into smaller pieces for energy
false...minerals are the smallest unit and cannot be broken down into anything smaller
5 typical minerals:
1) iron
2) magnesium
3) potassium
4) calcium
5) sodium
you cannot destroy minerals using ____ or ____
heat; light
which helps to rid the body of harmful by-products created during metabolism, vitamins, minerals, or vitamins AND minerals?
the 2 categories of minerals are:
1) trace minerals
2) major minerals
trace minerals are needed in quantities less than ____ (# + unit of measurement) per day
is water organic or inorganic?
water is inorganic because it doesn't contain:
4 ways water helps our body:
1) excretion of waste products
2) muscle contractions
3) nerve impulses
4) proper balance of fluid inside/outside our cells
5) nutrient transport
DRIs are:
dietary reference intakes
DRIs for most nutrients consist of these 4 values (acronym + full word):

a 5th and 6th measure are:
1) EAR (estimated average requirement)
2) RDA (recommended dietary allowed)
3) AI (adequate intake)
4) UL (tolerable upper intake level)

5) EER (estimated energy requirement)
6) AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range)
the ____ represents the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the requirements of 98% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
RDA (recommended daily allowance)
the ____ is defined as the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult
EER (estimated energy requirement)
____ represents the average daily intake level estimated to meet the requirement of 1/2 the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group
EAR (estimated average requirement)
____ is a value that recommends average daily nutrient intake level assumed to appropriate
AI (adequate intake)
____ defines a range of macronutrient intakes that provides adequate levels of essential nutrients and is associated with a reduced risk for chronic disease
AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range)
____ is the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage or gender group
UL (tolerable upper intake limit)
a ____ arrises from too little of something, and a _____ arrises from too much
deficiency, toxicity
the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) for healthful diets are:
1) ____ for carbohydrates
2) ____ for fats
3) ____ for protein
1) 45-65%
2) 20-35%
3) 10-35%
a possible explanation for an observation is a ____
arrange these in order from idea maturity, youngest to oldest: theory, hypothesis, conclusion
hypothesis --> conclusion --> theory
a hypothesis must be ____
for an experiment you must have a ____ ____ and a ____
control group; variable
a control group is used for comparing ____ to ____ individuals
treated; untreated
researchers try to design an experiment that has as many ____ as possible
____ ____ involve large populations, ____ ____ involve animals, and ____ ____ and ____ ____ are used in human studies
epidemiological study; model study; case study; clinical trials
epidemiological studies are also called ____ ____
observational studies
epidemiological studies can show us ____ but not ____
relationships; cause-and-effect
benefits to studying animals over humans? give 2 reasons.
1) shorts life spans (it takes a long time to determine the results of certain nutritional interventions in humans)
2) shorts reproduction times (can see trends across many generations)
3) can do things that are considered less ethical
problems with studying animals over humans? give 2 reasons.
1) results may be different in humans
2) ethical implications
____ ____ ____ are epidemiological studies done on a small scale
case control studies
____ ____ are tightly controlled experiments in which an intervention is made to determine its effect on a certain condition
clinical trial
____ ____ involve comparing a group of individuals with a particular condition to a similar group without the condition
case studies
among clinical trials, the type considered most likely to produce valid, reliable data is the [4 words] study
double-blind placebo-controlled
a ____ is an imitation treatment that has no scientifically recognized therapeutic value
in a double-blind study, neither the ____ nor the ____ know which group is really getting the treatment
researchers; participants
the effect of participation in the study on the participants' state of mind is called ____ ____, or ____ ____
psychosomatic effect; placebo effect
the ___ is considered to be the leading federal agency in the US that protects human health and safety
CDC - Center for Disease Control (and Prevention)
the ___ (acronym + whole word) is the world's leading medical research center and the focal point for medical research in the US
NIH (national institutes of health)
the ____ is the largest organization of food and nutrition professionals in the US
ADA (American Dietetic Association)
difficult information in Chapter 1 (by page #)
pages 14-15
pages 19-20
nutrients can prevent disease at 3 levels of influence (notes):
1) directly
2) strongly associated
3) related to nutrient intake
spiritual, physical and emotional health are all components of ____
2 critical components to wellness:
1) nutrition
2) physical activity
The organic and inorganic chemical components found in foods that are critical to human growth and function are called ____
sugar and fiber are examples of ____
____ help our bodies to process energy
____ are solid at room temperature, and ____ are liquid at room temperature
fats; oils
the more double-bonds lipids have, the MORE/LESS liquid-y they are
____ are a key component of our nervous system and, while able to be produced in our bodies, can also be ingested
The past 2 weeks Mike has fallen asleep during his 2pm class. One of his friends told him he might not be getting enough calories and he should take a vitamin supplement. If a dietician was assessing Mike's energy intake, which items would he need to tell them about for an accurate assessment?

Options: Food, beverages, vitamins, minerals.
food and beverages (because vitamins and minerals don't have calories)
____ is the preferred carbohydrate of the body
____ requires carbohydrates to transport oxygen to muscles
Let's say you have completed a personal diet analysis, and you consume 2,500 kcal per day. From your diet analysis, you also find that you consume 300g of carbohydrates, 90g of fat, and 123g of protein.

what % of your diet is composed of:
1) carbohydrates?
2) fats?
3) protein?
1) 48%
2) 32.4%
3) 19.68

(take grams consumed, multiple by kcal (4 or 9, in this case), divide by total number of calories consumed, multiple by 100; for #1, (((300 X 4) / 2500) X 100), or 300 X 4 = 1200, 1200 / 2500 = .48, .48 X 100 = 48%)
using the same problem from above, how would you find the amount of calories consumed based on your knowledge of kcal and grams eaten?
multiple the grams for each group (carbohydrate/fat/protein) by the kcal value to find calories consumed

(300 X 4) + (123 X 4) + (90 X 9) = 2502 calories
true or false: calories are a measure of the amount of fat in foods
true or false: proteins are not a primary source of energy for the body
true or false: the Recommended Dietary Allowance is the amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of almost all healthy people of a particular age and gender
Vitamins A and C, thiamin, calcium, and magnesium are considered:

a. water-soluble vitamins
b. fat-soluble vitamins
c. energy nutrients
d. micronutrients
the world's leading medical research center is the:

a. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
b. National Institutes of Health
c. American Medical Association
d. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
ten grams of fat:

a. contains 40 kcal of energy
b. constitute the Dietary Reference Intake for an average adult male
c. contain 90 kcal of energy
d. constitute the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for an average adult male
which of the following statements about hypotheses is true?

a. hypotheses can be proven by clinical trials
b. "many inactive people have high blood pressure" is an example of a hypothesis
c. if the results of multiple experiments consistently support a hypothesis, it is confirmed as fact
d. "a high-protein diet increases the risk for porous bones" is an example of a hypothesis
which of the following foods contains all 6 nutrient groups?

a. strawberry ice cream
b. an egg-salad sandwich
c. creamy tomato soup
d. all of the above
true of false: fat-soluble vitamins provide energy
true or false: the Recommended Dietary Allowance represents the average daily intake level that meets the requirements of almost all healthy individuals in a given life stage or gender group
true or false: nutrition significantly affects a person's risk for heart disease
true or false: nutrition-related reports in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition are usually trustworthy
true or false: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins all contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Women who are breastfeeding should abstain from alcohol as it easily passes into the breast milk at levels equal to blood alcohol concentrations: true or false
The chemical structure of alcohol is similar to which macronutrient?
The ____ is the primary site of alcohol metabolism in the body.
f someone passes out after a night of hard drinking, he or she should be left alone to "sleep it off:" true or false
For males, binge drinking is defined as consuming ____ or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion within a short period of time; for females, binge drinking is defined as consuming 5 or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion within a short period of time
____ are chemical compounds structurally similar to carbohydrates, with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups
____ is the specific type of alcohol found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits
ethanol is the by-product of the ____ process, in which ____ breaks down grains, fruits, or vegetables
fermentation; yeast
a drink is defined as the amount of a beverage that provides ____ fluid ounce of pure alcohol
consumption guidelines: ____ drink(s) per day for women; ____ drink(s) per day for men
1; 2
in the elderly, a moderate use of alcohol can improve ____ and dietary intake
moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to lower rates of ____ ____
heart disease
alcohol increases levels of the "____" type of cholesterol (____), while lowering the concentration of "____" cholesterol (LDL)
good; HDL; bad; LDL
alcohol reduces the risk for abnormal ____ formation in the blood vessels
recently, there has been a lot of interest in ____, which is a powerful antioxidant found in red wines and foods such as grapes and nuts
some researchers, based on experiments with mice, are proposing that resveratrol may be able to lower our risk for certain chronic disease, such as ____, ____ ____, and ____ ____
diabetes; heart disease; liver disease
moderate use of alcohol has also been linked to a higher rate of bleeding in the brain, resulting in what is termed ____ ____
hemorrhagic stroke
unlike solid foods, alcoholic beverages fail to trigger the ____ response
mixing alcohol with medications can cause bleeding in the ____ ____
gastrointestinal tract
alcohol ____ the effect of certain painkillers, sleeping pills, antidepressants, and anti anxiety medications and can lead to loss of consciousness
in diabetics (who are using insulin oral/injection), alcohol consumption can ____ glucose levels to inappropriate levels
most of the alcohol someone drinks is absorbed directly into the ____ from both the ____ and ____ ____
bloodstream; stomach; small intestines
alcohol: does/doesn't :have to be broken down before absorption
consuming foods with some fat, protein, and fiber ____ the absorption of alcohol and can reduce BAC (which stands for ____ ____ ____) by up to ____% compared to peak BAC when drinking on an empty stomach
slows; blood alcohol concentration; 50%
carbonated alcoholic beverages are absorbed: quickly/slowly
note: this explains why champagne and other sparkling wines are so quick to generate an alcoholic buzz
women often absorb ____%-____% more of a given alcohol intake than do men of the same size
a small amount of the alcohol in the ____ is broken down before it is absorbed. the rest travels in the ____ to the ____, where it's broken down at a fairly steady rate
stomach; bloodstream; liver
on average, a healthy adult metabolizes the equivalent of ____ drink per hour
if someone drinks more than that, such as 2 or 3 drinks in an hour, the ____ is unable to "keep up"
the excess alcohol is released back into the ____, through which it's distributed to all body fluids and tissues, including the brain
physical activity, such as walking around, will speed up the breakdown of alcohol: true or false
false; muscles don't metabolize alcohol...the liver does
drinking a lot of coffee will keep you from getting drunk: true or false
false; coffee doesn't cause alcohol to be excreted in the urine
using a sauna or steam room will force the alcohol out of your body: true or false
false; very little alcohol is lost in the sweat...the alcohol will remain in your bloodstream
herbal and nutritional products are available that speed up the breakdown of alcohol: true or false
false; there is no scientific evidence that commercial supplements will increase the rate of alcohol metabolism...they will not lower BAC
a person who steadily increases their alcohol consumption over time because ____ tolerant of a given intake of alcohol
chronic drinkers experience ____ ____, a condition in which the liver becomes more efficient in its breakdown of alcohol. this means a person's BAC rises more slowly after consuming a certain number of drinks.
metabolic tolerance
additionally, chronic drinkers develop what's called ____ ____, meaning that they show few, if any, signs of impairment or intoxication even at high BACs
functional tolerance
alcohol is a drug: true or false
alcohol exerts a ____ effect on virtually every part of the brain, acting as a sedative and depressant
____ ____, the consumption of 5 or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion for men, or four or more for women, occurs in about 15% of US adults and in youth as young as 12 years of age
binge drinking
alcohol has a ____ effect, which is a compound that increases urine output. alcohol inhibits the release of the hormones that normally regulate urine production, so the body loses excessive fluid and minerals, such as ____
diuretic; sodium
alcohol irritates the ____ of the ____ and increase the production of ____ ____
lining; stomach; stomach acid
alcohol also disrupts normal body metabolism, leading to low levels of ____ ____ and elevated levels of ____ ____
blood glucose; blood acidity
true or false: when teens or young adults chronically consume excessive amounts of alcohol, they may permanently damage brain structure and function
at very high intakes of alcohol, a person is at risk for ____ ____, a metabolic state that occurs in response to binge drinking
alcohol poisoning
____ ____, a condition in which abnormal amounts of fat build up in the liver, is an early yet reversible sign of alcohol-related liver damage
fatty liver
____ ____ causes loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and jaundice (a yellowing of the skin and eyes, reflecting loss of liver function)
alcoholic hepatitis
____ of the liver is often the result of long-term alcohol abuse; liver cells are scarred, blood flow throughout he liver is impaired, and liver function declines
heavy drinking has been associated with a number of diseases. for example, it damages the ____, which produces insulin, a hormone essential for blood glucose regulation. the result is chronically elevated blood glucose levels and an increased risk for diabetes.
true or false: research has strongly linked heavy alcohol intake to increased risk for cancer of the mouth and throat, esophagus, stomach, liver, colon, and female breast
alcohol is a known ____ (a substance that causes fetal harm) that readily crosses the placenta into the fetal bloodstream
note: since the immature fetal liver cannot effectively break down the alcohol, it accumulates in the fetal blood and tissues, increasing the risk for various birth defects
____ ____ ____ ____ is an umbrella term used to describe the range of complications that develop when a women consumes alcohol while pregnant
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD)
the diagnosis of ____ ____ ____ ____ is made when an infant is born with one or more congenital defects
alcohol related birth defects (ARBD)
alcohol consumption during pregnancy can also result in ____ ____ ____ ____, which lead to central nervous system damage, learning impairments, and behavioral problems throughout life including hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, or other related disorders
alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND)
____ ____ ____ is the most severe of these conditions and is characterized by malformations of the face, limbs, heart, and nervous system.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
____ (acronym) is one of the most common causes of mental retardation in the US and the only one that is completely preventable
true or false: there are established and well-known rules/knowledge for how much a pregnant woman can drink
true or false: most scientists agree that people who abuse alcohol cannot just "cut down." complete avoidance of all alcoholic beverages is the only way for most people who abuse alcohol to achieve full and ongoing recovery.
women have less enzymes and absurd about ____ (fraction) more alcohol than men
which organ is by far the most efficient region of the gastrointestinal tract for alcohol absorption and why
small intestine; because of its very large surface area
the liver can break down approximately ____ ounces of alcohol per hour; exceeding this causes it to be realized into the ____
.5; bloodstream