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Nutrition: An Applied Approach Chapter 1

scurvy is a deficiency in ______

vitamin C

a disease that comes on slowly and can persist for years is referred to as a _____ _____

chronic disease

pellagra is a deficiency of _____


niacin is a "_"-vitamin


poor nutrition is associated with 3 main chronic diseases:

1) heart disease
2) stroke
3) diabetes

the two main goals of a healthful diet are:

1) prevent nutrient-deficiency diseases (i.e. scurvy and pellagra)
2) lower the risk for chronic diseases (i.e. type 2 diabetes and heart disease)

6 types of nutrients:

1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) protein
4) water
5) minerals
6) vitamins

3 types of lipids:

1) fats
2) oils
3) sterols

the term organic is used to denote nutrients that contain both ____ and ____

carbon and hydrogen

4 types of nutrients that are organic:

1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) protein
4) vitamins

____ and ____ are 2 (of 6) nutrients that are NOT organic

1) minerals
2) water

alcohol is considered to be both a ____ and a ____

drug; toxin

____ are nutrients that provide energy


macronutrients include these 3 categories:

1) carbohydrates
2) lipids
3) protein

in contrast with macronutrients, micronutrients don't supply the body with ____


the energy in food is measured in units called ____

kilocalories (kcal)

a kilocalorie is the amount of _____ required to raise the temperature of _____ kilo (/____ pounds) of _____ by _____ degree _____

heat; 1 (/2.2); water; 1; Celsius

the energy found in 1 gram of carbohydrate is equal to ____ kcal


1 kilocalories is equal to _____ calories


protein provides ____ kcal per gram


alcohol provides _____ kcal per gram


fat provides ____ kcal per gram


____ are the primary source of fuel for our body


carbohydrates are particularly useful for the ____ and during _____

brain; exercise

carbo- refers to _____, while hydrate refers to ____

carbon; water

carbohydrates are composed of chains of:

1) hydrogen
2) oxygen
3) carbon

7 types of food that contain carbohydrates

grains, vegetables, sugar in fruit, legumes, dairy, seeds and nuts

lipids are _____ in water


1) what are fats made of?
2) lipids contain less _____ and _____ than fats
3) what does this mean?

1) carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
2) oxygen, hydrogen
3) that lipids can pack more tightly together, yielding higher energy per gram

fats are important for our body when _____ or during _____-_____ _____

resting; low-intensity exercise

our body is capable of storing large amounts of fat as _____ tissue


fats are important for the transport of ____ in our _____ because some [answer 2] are only soluble in _____

vitamins; blood; fat

solid fats are things like ____ and ____

butter; margarine

what are proteins made up of?

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen

within proteins, these 4 elements assemble into blocks called ____ ____

amino acids

what is the main use of protein in our bodies? what is it not mainly used for?

new cell creation and tissue rebuilding
NOT a primary source of energy

proteins are also important in regulating the breakdown of _____ and our ____ ____

food; fluid balance

micronutrients assist in:

the regulation of body functions

3 types of micronutrients:

water, minerals, vitamins

we need large amounts of _____ but small amounts of _____

macronutrients, micronutrients

____ are organic compounds that help regulate our body's functions


do vitamins contain energy, yes or no?


____ is the process by which micronutrients are broken down into smaller molecules that our body can absorb and use


vitamins are essential to ____ ____

energy metabolism

vitamins assist in releasing and using the energy from:

1) carbohydrates
2) protein
3) lipids

vitamins are classified in 2 ways:

1) water soluble
2) fat soluble

____ are inorganic substances


minerals don't contain ____ and ____

carbon; hydrogen

true or false: minerals are large, but the body can break them down into smaller pieces for energy

false...minerals are the smallest unit and cannot be broken down into anything smaller

5 typical minerals:

1) iron
2) magnesium
3) potassium
4) calcium
5) sodium

you cannot destroy minerals using ____ or ____

heat; light

which helps to rid the body of harmful by-products created during metabolism, vitamins, minerals, or vitamins AND minerals?


the 2 categories of minerals are:

1) trace minerals
2) major minerals

trace minerals are needed in quantities less than ____ (# + unit of measurement) per day


is water organic or inorganic?


water is inorganic because it doesn't contain:


4 ways water helps our body:

1) excretion of waste products
2) muscle contractions
3) nerve impulses
4) proper balance of fluid inside/outside our cells
5) nutrient transport

DRIs are:

dietary reference intakes

DRIs for most nutrients consist of these 4 values (acronym + full word):

a 5th and 6th measure are:

1) EAR (estimated average requirement)
2) RDA (recommended dietary allowed)
3) AI (adequate intake)
4) UL (tolerable upper intake level)

5) EER (estimated energy requirement)
6) AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range)

the ____ represents the average daily nutrient intake level that meets the requirements of 98% of healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group

RDA (recommended daily allowance)

the ____ is defined as the average dietary energy intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult

EER (estimated energy requirement)

____ represents the average daily intake level estimated to meet the requirement of 1/2 the healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group

EAR (estimated average requirement)

____ is a value that recommends average daily nutrient intake level assumed to appropriate

AI (adequate intake)

____ defines a range of macronutrient intakes that provides adequate levels of essential nutrients and is associated with a reduced risk for chronic disease

AMDR (acceptable macronutrient distribution range)

____ is the highest average daily nutrient intake level likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a particular life stage or gender group

UL (tolerable upper intake limit)

a ____ arrises from too little of something, and a _____ arrises from too much

deficiency, toxicity

the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) for healthful diets are:
1) ____ for carbohydrates
2) ____ for fats
3) ____ for protein

1) 45-65%
2) 20-35%
3) 10-35%

a possible explanation for an observation is a ____


arrange these in order from idea maturity, youngest to oldest: theory, hypothesis, conclusion

hypothesis --> conclusion --> theory

a hypothesis must be ____


for an experiment you must have a ____ ____ and a ____

control group; variable

a control group is used for comparing ____ to ____ individuals

treated; untreated

researchers try to design an experiment that has as many ____ as possible


____ ____ involve large populations, ____ ____ involve animals, and ____ ____ and ____ ____ are used in human studies

epidemiological study; model study; case study; clinical trials

epidemiological studies are also called ____ ____

observational studies

epidemiological studies can show us ____ but not ____

relationships; cause-and-effect

benefits to studying animals over humans? give 2 reasons.

1) shorts life spans (it takes a long time to determine the results of certain nutritional interventions in humans)
2) shorts reproduction times (can see trends across many generations)
3) can do things that are considered less ethical

problems with studying animals over humans? give 2 reasons.

1) results may be different in humans
2) ethical implications

____ ____ ____ are epidemiological studies done on a small scale

case control studies

____ ____ are tightly controlled experiments in which an intervention is made to determine its effect on a certain condition

clinical trial

____ ____ involve comparing a group of individuals with a particular condition to a similar group without the condition

case studies

among clinical trials, the type considered most likely to produce valid, reliable data is the [4 words] study

double-blind placebo-controlled

a ____ is an imitation treatment that has no scientifically recognized therapeutic value


in a double-blind study, neither the ____ nor the ____ know which group is really getting the treatment

researchers; participants

the effect of participation in the study on the participants' state of mind is called ____ ____, or ____ ____

psychosomatic effect; placebo effect

the ___ is considered to be the leading federal agency in the US that protects human health and safety

CDC - Center for Disease Control (and Prevention)

the ___ (acronym + whole word) is the world's leading medical research center and the focal point for medical research in the US

NIH (national institutes of health)

the ____ is the largest organization of food and nutrition professionals in the US

ADA (American Dietetic Association)

difficult information in Chapter 1 (by page #)

pages 14-15
pages 19-20

nutrients can prevent disease at 3 levels of influence (notes):

1) directly
2) strongly associated
3) related to nutrient intake

spiritual, physical and emotional health are all components of ____


2 critical components to wellness:

1) nutrition
2) physical activity

The organic and inorganic chemical components found in foods that are critical to human growth and function are called ____


sugar and fiber are examples of ____


____ help our bodies to process energy


____ are solid at room temperature, and ____ are liquid at room temperature

fats; oils

the more double-bonds lipids have, the MORE/LESS liquid-y they are


____ are a key component of our nervous system and, while able to be produced in our bodies, can also be ingested


The past 2 weeks Mike has fallen asleep during his 2pm class. One of his friends told him he might not be getting enough calories and he should take a vitamin supplement. If a dietician was assessing Mike's energy intake, which items would he need to tell them about for an accurate assessment?

Options: Food, beverages, vitamins, minerals.

food and beverages (because vitamins and minerals don't have calories)

____ is the preferred carbohydrate of the body


____ requires carbohydrates to transport oxygen to muscles


Let's say you have completed a personal diet analysis, and you consume 2,500 kcal per day. From your diet analysis, you also find that you consume 300g of carbohydrates, 90g of fat, and 123g of protein.

what % of your diet is composed of:
1) carbohydrates?
2) fats?
3) protein?

1) 48%
2) 32.4%
3) 19.68

(take grams consumed, multiple by kcal (4 or 9, in this case), divide by total number of calories consumed, multiple by 100; for #1, (((300 X 4) / 2500) X 100), or 300 X 4 = 1200, 1200 / 2500 = .48, .48 X 100 = 48%)

using the same problem from above, how would you find the amount of calories consumed based on your knowledge of kcal and grams eaten?

multiple the grams for each group (carbohydrate/fat/protein) by the kcal value to find calories consumed

(300 X 4) + (123 X 4) + (90 X 9) = 2502 calories

true or false: calories are a measure of the amount of fat in foods


true or false: proteins are not a primary source of energy for the body


true or false: the Recommended Dietary Allowance is the amount of a nutrient that meets the needs of almost all healthy people of a particular age and gender


Vitamins A and C, thiamin, calcium, and magnesium are considered:

a. water-soluble vitamins
b. fat-soluble vitamins
c. energy nutrients
d. micronutrients


the world's leading medical research center is the:

a. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
b. National Institutes of Health
c. American Medical Association
d. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


ten grams of fat:

a. contains 40 kcal of energy
b. constitute the Dietary Reference Intake for an average adult male
c. contain 90 kcal of energy
d. constitute the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for an average adult male


which of the following statements about hypotheses is true?

a. hypotheses can be proven by clinical trials
b. "many inactive people have high blood pressure" is an example of a hypothesis
c. if the results of multiple experiments consistently support a hypothesis, it is confirmed as fact
d. "a high-protein diet increases the risk for porous bones" is an example of a hypothesis


which of the following foods contains all 6 nutrient groups?

a. strawberry ice cream
b. an egg-salad sandwich
c. creamy tomato soup
d. all of the above


true of false: fat-soluble vitamins provide energy


true or false: the Recommended Dietary Allowance represents the average daily intake level that meets the requirements of almost all healthy individuals in a given life stage or gender group


true or false: nutrition significantly affects a person's risk for heart disease


true or false: nutrition-related reports in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition are usually trustworthy


true or false: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins all contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen


Women who are breastfeeding should abstain from alcohol as it easily passes into the breast milk at levels equal to blood alcohol concentrations: true or false


The chemical structure of alcohol is similar to which macronutrient?


The ____ is the primary site of alcohol metabolism in the body.


f someone passes out after a night of hard drinking, he or she should be left alone to "sleep it off:" true or false


For males, binge drinking is defined as consuming ____ or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion within a short period of time; for females, binge drinking is defined as consuming 5 or more alcoholic drinks on one occasion within a short period of time


____ are chemical compounds structurally similar to carbohydrates, with one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups


____ is the specific type of alcohol found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits


ethanol is the by-product of the ____ process, in which ____ breaks down grains, fruits, or vegetables

fermentation; yeast

a drink is defined as the amount of a beverage that provides ____ fluid ounce of pure alcohol


consumption guidelines: ____ drink(s) per day for women; ____ drink(s) per day for men

1; 2

in the elderly, a moderate use of alcohol can improve ____ and dietary intake


moderate alcohol consumption has been linked to lower rates of ____ ____

heart disease

alcohol increases levels of the "____" type of cholesterol (____), while lowering the concentration of "____" cholesterol (LDL)

good; HDL; bad; LDL

alcohol reduces the risk for abnormal ____ formation in the blood vessels


recently, there has been a lot of interest in ____, which is a powerful antioxidant found in red wines and foods such as grapes and nuts


some researchers, based on experiments with mice, are proposing that resveratrol may be able to lower our risk for certain chronic disease, such as ____, ____ ____, and ____ ____

diabetes; heart disease; liver disease

moderate use of alcohol has also been linked to a higher rate of bleeding in the brain, resulting in what is termed ____ ____

hemorrhagic stroke

unlike solid foods, alcoholic beverages fail to trigger the ____ response


mixing alcohol with medications can cause bleeding in the ____ ____

gastrointestinal tract

alcohol ____ the effect of certain painkillers, sleeping pills, antidepressants, and anti anxiety medications and can lead to loss of consciousness


in diabetics (who are using insulin oral/injection), alcohol consumption can ____ glucose levels to inappropriate levels


most of the alcohol someone drinks is absorbed directly into the ____ from both the ____ and ____ ____

bloodstream; stomach; small intestines

alcohol: does/doesn't :have to be broken down before absorption


consuming foods with some fat, protein, and fiber ____ the absorption of alcohol and can reduce BAC (which stands for ____ ____ ____) by up to ____% compared to peak BAC when drinking on an empty stomach

slows; blood alcohol concentration; 50%

carbonated alcoholic beverages are absorbed: quickly/slowly


note: this explains why champagne and other sparkling wines are so quick to generate an alcoholic buzz


women often absorb ____%-____% more of a given alcohol intake than do men of the same size


a small amount of the alcohol in the ____ is broken down before it is absorbed. the rest travels in the ____ to the ____, where it's broken down at a fairly steady rate

stomach; bloodstream; liver

on average, a healthy adult metabolizes the equivalent of ____ drink per hour


if someone drinks more than that, such as 2 or 3 drinks in an hour, the ____ is unable to "keep up"


the excess alcohol is released back into the ____, through which it's distributed to all body fluids and tissues, including the brain


physical activity, such as walking around, will speed up the breakdown of alcohol: true or false

false; muscles don't metabolize alcohol...the liver does

drinking a lot of coffee will keep you from getting drunk: true or false

false; coffee doesn't cause alcohol to be excreted in the urine

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