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Sociology Chapter 3
Terms in this set (73)
is a process of social interaction through which people acquire 1) personality and identity and 2) the way of life of their society
Through _____, we internalize the culture of our society. The result of successful _____ is that the world becomes so comprehensible that we can take it for granted. Through this, theorems and values of society are carried on
The social processes through which we develop self awareness of social norms and values and achieve a distance sense of self
process whereby an innocent child becomes self-aware, knowledgeable person, skilled in the ways of the culture into which he or she was born.
The process whereby societies have structural continuity over time. During the course of socialization, children learn the ways of their elders, thereby carrying on their values, norms, and social practices.
________ is an important pathway through which parents transmit or produce values, norms, and social practices among their children
the process of learning new norms, values, and behaviors when one joins a new group or takes on anew social role, or when life circumstances change dramatically
2 types of socialization
Primary and secondary
Key figure in Socialization?
George Herbert Mead
the "me". The basis of self-consciousness in human individuals, according to the theory of George Mead. The social self is the identity conferred upon an individual by the reactions of others. A person achieves self-consciousness by becoming aware of this social identity.
Awareness of one's distinct social identity as a person separate from others. Human beings are not born with self-consciousness but acquire an awareness of self as a result of socialization
the general values and moral rules of the culture in which they are developing. concept by Mead, where individual takes over the general values of a given group or society during the socialization process.
Pretending to be something else. You play a specific role. You're trying to put your brain into the specific role you are thinking about.
age 8. Kids learning how to play sports. You area able to created the generalized other. Children can learn complex games like baseball.
Jean Piaget invented what?
The stages of cognitive development
1st Stage of cognitive development
2nd stage of cognitive development
3rd stage of cognitive development
4th stage of cognitive development
(birth-1) According to Piaget, a stage of human cognitive development in which the child's awareness of is or her environment is dominated by perception and touch. They explore their environment through touch.
(1-7) Child has advanced sufficiently to master basic modes of logical thought. Mastery of language and an ability to use words to represent objects and images in a symbolic fashion. Children at this stage are egocentric. Ex: if you hold a book and the kid asks you about the picture but you can't see it because it's the back of the book
Concrete operational stage
(7-11) Child's thinking is based primarily on physical perception of the world. The child is not yet capable of dealing with abstract concepts or hypothetical situations. Kids master logical but not abstract notions.
They can add, divide, multiply. Kids can start to put themselves in the point of view of others around them
Ex: how many sisters does your sister have? She will answer 1. But for preop, she would say 0.
Formal operational stage
(11-15) The growing child becomes capable of handling abstract concepts and hypothetical situations.Further abstraction and hypothetical reasoning. Can solve problems by reviewing all the possible ways of solving it and go through them theoretically in order to reach a solution
Agents of Socialization
Groups or social contexts within which processes of socialization take place. These are the most significant groups and institutions within which socialization occurs
Family, schools, peer groups, workplace, mass media are all examples of __________.
Agents of Socialization
a friendship group composed of individuals of similar age and social status
the system found in small traditional cultures by which people belonging to a similar age group are categorized together and hold similar rights and obligations
Socially defined expectations of an individual in a given status, or occupying a particular social position. In every society, individuals play a number of social roles, such as teenager, parent, worker, or political leader.
This concept of fixed roles allows us to speak in broad terms about certain figures: for example mother, teacher, doctor
children model the behavior of their parents. IN this way, values and behavior are reproduced across generations. this is an example of....
2 types of identity
Social identity (objective) and self-identity (subjective identity)
1) is an Objective identity
2) sources os this include gender, race, nationality, and sexual orientation.
3) We can't really change these kinds of identity (we can't change our race)
4) we have multiple of this kind of identity
5) ex: college student is a social objective identity
1) subjective identity
2) is the one that we take on as being "true" or "real"; it is how we see ourselves.
3) what you think about yourself, what makes you unique
the ongoing process of self-development and definition of our personal identity through which we formulate a unique sense of ourselves and our relationship to the world around us. Interaction between society and the individual shapes this.
The looking-glass self
We construct ourself based on how we think other people see us. Cooley´s concept states that a person's self grows out of a person´s social interactions with others. The view of ourselves comes from the contemplation of personal qualities and impressions of how others perceive us. Actually, how we see ourselves does not come from who we really are, but rather from how we believe others see us.
The way identity is constructed has changed over time for at least 4 reasons:
1) Identity is no longer as deeply rooted in family
2) there is a much higher degree of geographic mobility. (people move to different places therefore their identities change with where they live)
3)Religion is now more flexible, more changeable (you don't have to stick with the religion your parents are in, you can change)
4) the social world determines less of who we are. Because we move around, we can define ourselves based on other things
refers to the process of learning "appropriate" gendered behavior through agents of socialization
Is socially constructed. It is the behaviors like boys play with footballs while girls play with dolls
This kind of socialization has been found to begin before birth. Parental presence and behavior play role in this kind of socialization. toys, t.v, movies, and even books also contribute to differential role construction.
Gender socialization creates _______ ________
Gender inequalities. ex: you see books with boys being heroes and girls just being side kicks.
Stages of the Life Course
1) childhood (1-12 years)
2) Teenager (13-19)
3) Young adulthood
4) Midlife or middle age (most of life accomplishments like getting married and getting a career job)
5) Later life or old age
Human life is not only a biological process but also a ________
The various transitions and stages people experience during their lives. are social as well as biological in nature.
is the stage between infancy and adolescence
Didn't exist till recently.
This stage they go through puberty.
Transition to adulthood.
They are in between actual adults and child. ex: teens may wish to work and earn money like adults but legally they have to stay in school. Pope culture promotes sexy clothing among teens, yet frowns upon teenage sexual activity
1) Stage of exploration often before one settles on a permanent job, spouse, or home
2)Taking time to travel: to explore sexual, political, and religious affiliations; try out different careers, and to date and live with several romantic partners before eventually marrying.
5 benchmarks of adulthood (young adulthood)
1) leaving parents home
2) finishing school
3) Getting married
4) having a child
5) achieving financial independence
Midlife or middle age
Stage between young adulthood and old age (45-65)
parents go through "empty nest" syndrome
point where men dn women may assess their past choices and accomplishments and make new choices that prepare them for the second half of life.
Later life or old age
Get great deal of respect (suppose to)
They start to disengage in their work
sociological study of aging and the elderly. Study of how we age socially. Grown more important because the elderly have become the fastest-growing segment of the population.
the combination of biological, psychological, and social processes that affect people as they grow older
Functionalist Theories of Aging (First generation of theories)
1. Disengagement theory
2. Activity theory
3. Continuity theory
emphasized how individuals adjusted to changing social roles as they aged and how those roles were useful to society
Functionalist theories of aging
a functionalist theory of aging that holds that it is functional for society to remove people from their traditional roles when they become elderly, thereby freeing up those roles for others. As people get older, they should disengage from society (leave work force)
a functionalist theory of aging, which holds that busy, engaged people are more likely to lead fulfilling and productive lives. It is important to have old people be active so they still have self worth and value to life.
theoretical perspective on aging that specifies that older adults fare best when they participate in activities consistent with their personality, preferences, and activities earlier in life. Continue to do things that gave them self worth from their earlier times in life.
2nd generation of theories
arguments that emphasize the ways in which the larger social structure helps to shape the opportunities available to the elderly; Unequal opportunities are seen as creating the potential for conflict. The elderly have access to less resources (like jobs)
Life course perspectives
A perspective based on the assumptions that the aging process is shaped by historical time and place; individuals make choices that reflect both opportunities and constrains; aging is a lifelong process; and the relationships, events, and experiences of early life have consequences for later life.
More of an approach on how to study aging. Looks at someone's social life throughout their whole life and see how their life played out. This is how gerontologist study someone life, look at their narrative of their life, their history.
Life course perspectives
life course theories
view older persons as playing an active role in determining their own physical and mental well being, yet recognize the constrains imposed by social structural factors.
This kind of theory view older adults as adapting to the larger society
These people view older adults as victims of the stratification system
discrimination or prejudice against a person on the grounds of age
In the U.S the elderly sometimes suffer of...
social isolation, lack of respect, prejudice, abuse, and health problems
There is more ______ ______ because of geographic mobility (people can move around) ex: divorce can cause this.
includes physical, sexual, emotional, or financial abuse, neglect, or abandonment.
human thought processes involving perception, reasoning, and remembering
family group consisting of an adult or adult couple and their dependent children
social scientists who study aging and the elderly
social conflict theories of aging
arguments that emphasize the ways in which the larger social structure helps to shape the opportunities available to the elderly. unequal opportunities are seen as creating the potential for conflict
term for persons between 65-74
term for person between 75-84
term for persons age 85 and older
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