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in light reactions, light absorbed by chlorophyll drives a transfer of __ and ____ from ___ to _____
electrons, hydrogen, water, NADP+
the light reactions use _____ to reduce NADP+ to ____ by adding ____
solar power, NADPH, a pair of electrons along with H+
hydrocarbons of yellow and orange; function as photoprotection: absorb and dissipate excessive light energy
a pigment can only absorb photons with energy
that equals the energy difference between the ground state and the excited state
protein complex that includes 2 special chlorophyll a molecules and a molecule called primary electron acceptor
the chlorophyll a molecules within the reaction center are special because
their location enables them to use the energy from light to boost one of their electrons to higher energy level
the 1st step of light reaction is
the solar-powered transfer of an electron fro ma special chlorophyll a molecule to the primary electron acceptor
each photosystem I or II has a characteristic reaction center
a particular kind of primary electron acceptor next to a pair of special chlorophyll a
the chloroplast's system for chemiosmosis is _____ to mitochondria because
similar, ATP synthase complexes similar, electron carriers similar
chemiosmosis in chloroplasts is different from mitochondria in that
chloroplasts do not need food to drive the reaction, and spacial organization
light reactions, summarized:
noncyclic electron flow pushes electrons from water, where they are at a lowe state of potential energy, to NADPHS, where they are stored ast a high state of potential energy. The light driven electron current also generates ATP. Thus, the equipment of the thylakoid membrane converts light energy to chemical energy stored in NADPH and ATP.
the direct product of Calvin cycle (net synthesis comes from 3 CO2)
a 3 carbon sugar; for each CO2 are formed in the Calvin cycle; 1 leaves to be used in the cell, 5 are use for regeneration of RuBP
The G3P that leaves the Calvin cycle is used for
starting material for metabolic pathways that synthesize other organic compounds
favored on a hot day when their stomata is closed to prevent transpiration, but also doesn't allow CO2 to get in
plants that preface the Calvin cycle with alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms a 4-carbon compound
in the C4 plants, the calvin cycle is confined to the _____
bundle sheath (but the cycle is preceded by incorporation into organic compounds into the mesophyll)
enzyme that aides in carrying out the C4 pathway within the mesophyll cells; it has no affinity for O2
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