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97 terms

NUR 120 (Unit 2) Alterations in the Musculskeletal System VOCAB

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ankylosis:
fixation or immobility of a joint
arthritis:
inflammation of a joint
arthroplasty:
replacement of a joint
osteoarthritis:
degenerative joint disease
osteophyte:
a bony outgrowth or protuberance; bone spur
pannus:
proliferation of newly formed synovial tissue infiltrated with inflammatory cells
rheumatic diseases:
numerous disorders affecting skeletal muscles, bones, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, and joints
rheumatoid arthritis:
autoimmune disease of unknown origin
subchondral bone:
bony plate that supports the articular cartilage
tophi:
accumulation of crystalline deposits in articular
surfaces, bones, soft tissue, and cartilage
atonic:
without tone; denervated muscle that atrophies
atrophy:
shrinkage-like decrease in the size of a muscle
bursa:
fluid-filled sac found in connective tissue, usually in the area of joints
callus:
cartilaginous/fibrous tissue at fracture site
cancellous bone:
latticelike bone structure; trabecular bone
cartilage:
tough, elastic, avascular tissue at ends of bone
clonus:
rhythmic contraction of muscle
contracture:
abnormal shortening of muscle or joint, or
both; fibrosis
cortical bone:
compact bone
crepitus:
grating or crackling sound or sensation; may occur with movement of ends of a broken bone or irregular joint surface
diaphysis:
shaft of long bone
effusion:
excess fluid in joint
endosteum:
a thin, vascular membrane covering the marrow cavity of long bones and the spaces in cancellous bone
epiphysis:
end of long bone
fascia (epimysium):
fibrous tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles
fasciculation:
involuntary twitch of muscle fibers
flaccid:
limp; without muscle tone
hypertrophy:
enlargement; increase in size of muscle isometric contraction: muscle tension increased, length unchanged, no joint motion
isotonic contraction:
muscle tension unchanged, muscle shortened, joint moved
joint:
area where bone ends meet; provides for motion and flexibility
joint capsule:
fibrous tissue that encloses bone ends and other joint surfaces
kyphosis:
increase in the convex curvature of the spine
lamellae:
mature compact bone structures that form concentric rings of bone matrix; lamellar bone
ligament:
fibrous band connecting bones
lordosis:
increase in lumbar curvature of the spine
ossification:
process in which minerals (calcium) are deposited in bone matrix
osteoblast:
bone-forming cell
osteoclast:
bone resorption cell
osteocyte:
mature bone cell
osteogenesis:
bone formation
osteon:
microscopic functional bone unit
paresthesia:
abnormal sensation (eg, burning, tingling,
numbness)
periosteum:
fibrous connective tissue covering bone
remodeling:
process that ensures bone maintenance
through simultaneous bone resorption and formation
resorption:
removal/destruction of tissue, such as bone
scoliosis:
lateral curving of the spine
spastic:
having greater-than-normal muscle tone
synovium:
membrane in joint that secretes lubricating fluid
tendon:
cord of fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone
tone (tonus):
normal tension (resistance to stretch) in resting muscle
trabeculae:
latticelike bone structure; cancellous bone
abduction:
movement away from the center or median line of the body
adduction:
movement toward the center or median line of the body
avascular necrosis:
death of tissue due to insufficient blood supply
brace:
externally applied device to support the body or a body part, control movement, and prevent injury
cast:
rigid external immobilizing device molded to contours of body part
cast syndrome:
psychological (claustrophobic reaction) or physiologic (superior mesenteric artery syndrome) responses to confinement in body cast
continuous passive motion (CPM) device:
a device that promotes range of motion, circulation, and healing
edema:
soft tissue swelling due to fluid accumulation
external fixator:
external metal frame attached to bone fragments to stabilize them
fracture:
a break in the continuity of the bone
heterotopic ossification:
misplaced formation of bone
neurovascular status:
neurologic (motor and sensory components) and circulatory functioning of a body part
open reduction with internal fixation (ORIF):
open surgical procedure to repair and stabilize a fracture
osteomyelitis:
infection of the bone
osteotomy:
surgical cutting of bone
sling:
bandage used to support an arm
splint:
device designed specifically to support and immobilize a body part in a desired position
traction:
application of a pulling force to a part of the body
trapeze:
overhead assistive device to promote patient mobility in bed
bursitis:
inflammation of a fluid-filled sac in a joint
contracture:
abnormal shortening of muscle or fibrosis of
joint structures
involucrum:
new bone growth around a sequestrum
radiculopathy:
disease of a nerve root
sciatica:
sciatic nerve pain; pain travels down back of thigh
into foot
sequestrum:
dead bone in abscess cavity
tendinitis:
inflammation of muscle tendons
allograft:
tissue harvested from a donor for use in another person
amputation:
removal of a body part, usually a limb or part of a limb
arthroscope:
surgical scope injected into the joint to examine or repair
autograft:
tissue harvested from one area of the body and used for transplantation to another area of the same body
avascular necrosis:
death of tissue secondary to a decrease or lack of perfusion
contusion:
blunt force injury to soft tissue
crepitus:
a grating sound or sensation by rubbing bony fragments together
débridement:
surgical removal of contaminated and devitalized tissues and foreign material
delayed union:
prolongation of expected healing time for a fracture
disarticulation:
amputation through a joint
dislocation:
complete separation of joint surfaces
fracture:
a break in the continuity of a bone
fracture reduction:
restoration of fracture fragments into anatomic alignment
malunion:
healing of a fractured bone in a malaligned position
nonunion:
failure of fractured bones to heal together
phantom limb pain:
pain perceived in an amputated section
RICE:
acronym for rest, ice, compression, elevation
sprain:
an injury to ligaments and muscles and other soft tissues at a joint
strain:
a musculotendinous stress injury
subluxation:
partial separation of joint surfaces