BYU Independent Study - Midterm Essay Questions
Terms in this set (4)
Define what is meant by the term "civilization." Discuss the attributes of civilization of at least two of the earliest river valley civilizations and explain how they influenced later civilizations in the same area.
Civilization: The society, culture, and way of life of a particular area. Also, the stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced.
Two river valley civilizations:
1. Egyptian - Nile River Valley
2. Sumerian - Tigris & Euphrates River Valley
How they affected later civilizations:
1. Egyptian - Mathematics, architecture, art
2. Sumerian - Hammurabi's code, laws
Explain the difference between territorial states and empires. Discuss at least two territorial states and compare/contrast them to at least two later empires. What are the defining characteristics of empires?
Territorial states were kingdoms organized around charismatic rulers who headed large households. Each state had a defined physical border.
Empires were groups of states or different ethnic groups that were combined under a single sovereign power.
2 Territorial States
1. Persian empire
2. Egyptian empire
Defining characteristics of empires:
1. military power used to expand borders
2. advanced technology, especially military technology.
3. elaborate public works systems
4. uniform legal codes or rules for conquered territories to follow (taxes/tributes to pay, slaves, etc.)
Discuss the role of religion in human development. What was the purpose of creation stories? Describe the development of religion in at least two different areas of the world. What was the role of key individuals in the development of religious beliefs?
Discuss the role of migration in early human history. How can scholars trace migratory patterns for the distant past? What effect did migrations have on settled societies?
Role of migration:
1. Migration played a key role in the development of certain technologies and techniques for tool-making, hunting, and the domestication of animals.
1. When nomads came into contact with settled communities, the culture of both was affected. Probably the most important way nomads affected settled communities was by the transfer of the technologies necessary to harness the horse and the introduction of the chariot.
2. The borrowing of languages and tools.
How to trace migratory patterns:
The spread of technology is one way modern scholars have to determine the movements of migrating peoples. Another way is to study the ways languages have spread and changed over time. Scholars use language evidence to help them understand human migration even in the very distant past.
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