29 terms

American Government Exam Vocab (Part 2)

Free Exercise Clause of 1st Amendment
Government can't stop me from practicing my religion unless i break a law.
Establishment Clause of 1st Amendment
The US cannot establish an official religion
2 types of speech, define them
1)Pure Speech-verbal thought in front of a crowd that chooses to listen
2)Symbolic Speech-using symbols to express ideas
Bad Tendency
The SC can prohibit freedom of speech if it has a bad tendency to produce illegal action.
Preferred Position Doctrine
1st amendment rights are more fundamental than other rights.
Spoken lies
Written words
Fighting speech
Speech that indicates violence
Defamatory Speech
Telling lies that defames character
Student Speech
Schools can regulate the school newspaper etc. Freedom of speech for students are less in schools
Prior Restraint
Censorship of material before it's published
Shield Law
Law that protects anomynous sources in 20 out of 50 states
Exclusionary Rule
States that illegally obtained evidence cannot be used in the federal courts
Double Jeopardy
Forbids a defendant from being tried again for a similar charge.
Equal Protection
Every citizen is guaranteed equal protection under the law
Rational basis test
Government can discriminate against a group but they have to have a rational reason for discriminating.
2 Examples of "Rational Basis test" clause
Driving age, boy/girl's bathrooms etc
Suspect Classification
Made because of race or ethnicity. One has to hae a good reason for this
Unfair treatment b/c of race, gender, age, religion etc
Fundamental Rights
Jim Crow Laws
Laws requiring racial segregation in places like school, buses, hotels
Afirmative Action
Government policies that awards jobs and other benefits to minorities in order to make up for past discriminations
Autocracy. Give examples
Power is in the hands of one person (Ex:king of saudi arabia, Libya)
Oligarchy. Give examples
Power is in the hands of a small group of people (Ex: China)
Direct democracy. Give examples
The people fully govern themselves by voting on issues as citizens (Ex: Ancient Greece)
Representative democracy. Give examples
The people elect representatives to govern them (Ex:The US)
Non partisan Elections
Elections where candidates appear on a ballot w/o a party label
People in the districts that the Representatives represent.
Laissez-faire principle
Government keeps its hand of the economy