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Nutrition 251 Exam #1
Terms in this set (150)
must be consumed from food or drink. They are carbohydrates, fat, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water.
Protein is a nutrient that can...
provide energy to the body.
All essential nutrients provide energy for the body.
The RDAs are the desired level of essential nutrient intake for most healthy people. RDAs have been established for various groups based on age, gender, and whether a woman is pregnant or breastfeeding. There is an RDA for Vitamin A which is the basis for its DV.
The RDA for nutrients are generally:
designated to be adequate for almost all healthy people in the U.S.
The tolerable upper intake level for calcium for females 19-50:
The Adequate Intake for potassium is:
the best estimate for the recommended daily intake.
The AMDR (Accepted Macronutrient Distribution Range) recommend that fat intake not exceed ____ percent of total calories.
According to the AMDR, what is the lowest percent of one's total kcalories that should come from carbohydrates?
Age is a factor that influences the amount of nutrient needed for an individual.
A person who consumes about 2,000 kcal per day should consume ___ total cups of fruits and vegetables.
A nutrient claim on a food label reads, "high in calcium." This means that it has at least ____ percent or more of the DV per serving.
A label reads "low fat" muffin. This means that each serving (1 muffin) has
3 grams or less of fat.
Which of the following nutrients does NOT have a Daily Value?
Based on the food label of spaghetti, this food item would be able to use the nutrition term "good source of" vitamin C on the front of the package.
A food label states that the food is rich in calcium so can reduce the risk for osteoporosis. According to the FDA, this would be considered a ...
Enriched bread has the same amount of fiber and zinc as whole grain bread.
Which of the following statements on the front of a food package is (are) not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration?
The physical design of the small intestine with its folds of villi and microvilli results in:
a tremendous increase in surface area to facilitate absorption.
Which of the following would NOT have peristalsis occurring?
What is the function of the gall bladder?
Storage of bile.
Many nutrients are absorbed in the blood stream from the small intestine. The first organ that gets this nutrient-rich blood is the:
Endogenous water in the gastrointestinal tract:
is water which is secreted into the lumen of the GI tract from body fluids.
Bile is produced by the ________ and stored in the ________ until it is released into the small intestine.
liver; gall bladder.
Hydrochloric acid is produced in the.....
The end products of digestion of just the protein component in beef are _____ which are then transported into the _____.
amino acids/blood system.
The function of bile is:
to emulsify large particles of fat.
When hydrochloric acid hits duodenal cells, ______ is secreted, travels to the pancreas to cause ______ secretion into the small intestine.
What is absorbed from the large intestine?
How does the gallbladder get the message that fat is present in the GI tract?
Fat in the small intestine stimulates the release of cholecystokinin into blood.
The end products of fat digestion are absorbed into the _______________, whereas the end products of carbohydrate and protein digestion absorbed into the _____________.
lymph vessels/blood stream.
Which kind(s) of mechanism(s) require(s) a protein carrier to get nutrients across the intestinal cell membrane?
Facilitated Diffusion/Active Transport.
Some nutrients cross membranes by active transport. Active transport requires:
a carrier on the membrane to chaperone the nutrient across and energy (ATP).
H. pylori is
a bacteria in the stomach that can cause peptic ulcers.
Which of the following strategies reduce the discomfort of heartburn?
Elevate your upper body a bit while lying down, eat small meals more frequently, and wait 3 hours after eating before lying down.
What structure prevents reflux of the stomach contents?
Lower esophageal sphincter.
An example of a _______ is Lactobacillus in yogurt because Lactobacillus is a ______________.
According to the film The Universe Within, which of the following is true about the liver?
The liver serves to lower blood cholesterol and detoxify dangerous substances.
Lactose is found in:
The linkage between the glucose molecules in unbranched starch (amylose) is:
Which of the following sugars is NOT found in plants?
Starch and sugar provide:
Which of the following foods has the most "added sugar?"
Fruit punch drink - 1 cup
cleaves the bond between fructose and glucose.
Why do health professionals encourage the consumption of foods rich in fiber to help in weight reduction?
Fiber rich foods tend to be low in fat and dietary fibers hold water causing bulk and a feeling of fullness.
Currently, the average American consumes about half of the recommended intake of dietary fiber.
Suzie was late for class this morning so skipped breakfast and now it is 4 hours later. Which hormone is high in Suzie's blood?
Beginning stages of Type 2 Diabetes:
He produces plenty of insulin but his cells are insensitive to it.
Diet and lifestyle recommendations for persons with type 2 diabetes include all of the following:
Try to lose some weight if you are overweight, spread nutrient intakes throughout the day in small, frequent meals and incorporate regular physical activity into your daily routine.
A HIGH glycemic index food
means that there is a fast absorption and a surge in blood glucose following consumption.
Which of the following is(are) TRUE regarding sugar substitutes?
The FDA must approve sugar substitutes as safe.
The symptoms of lactose intolerance are caused by:
too much endogenous water entering the intestine to dilute undigested lactose and bacterial fermentation of lactose in the large intestine generating gas.
For the most part, weight loss is similar for people following either:
a low carbohydrate diet or a low-fat diet.
Epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between:
carbohydrate intake and body weight.
providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health.
providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs.
management of food energy intake.
a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides.
providing enough but not too much of a substance.
eating a wide selection foods within and among the major food groups.
The difference between nutrient density and energy density:
nutrient measures amount of nutrients a food provides and energy measures the amount of energy a food provides.
Tolerable Upper Level Intake:
the maximum daily amount of a nutrient that appears safe for most healthy people and beyond which there is an increased risk of adverse health effects.
ranges of intakes for the energy nutrients that provide adequate energy and nutrients and reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
KCalories from Carbohydrates:
45 to 65%
KCalories from Fats:
20 to 35%
KCalories from Proteins:
10 to 35%
Dietary Guidelines and MyPlate recommend eating half your grain foods as
whole grains or 3 ounce equivalents per day.
How are whole grains different from processed (refined) grains?
Whole grain products have all the nutrients and fiber found in the original grain and processed (refined) grains have lost many nutrients during processing.
Enriched grains with nutrients:
Iron, Niacin, Thiamin, Riboflavin, and Folate.
Whole grains lose nutrients:
Vitamin B6, Magnesium, Zinc, and Fiber.
reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels.
Why is Daily Value used on food labels?
Food labels list the amount of some nutrients in a product as a percentage of its Daily Value, which makes the numbers more meaningful to consumers.
How are DVs different from the RDAs?
Daily Value is related to specific health benefits and to certain ages and genders of people and RDAs are just general estimates.
"High", "Good" and "Low" sources:
High - 20 percent or more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient per serving.
Good - the product provides between 10 and 19 percent of the Daily Value for a given nutrient per serving.
Low - an amount that would allow frequent consumption of a food without exceeding the Daily Value for the nutrient.
3 grams or less of fat per serving.
Percent of Calories Coming from Fat:
Calories in fat per serving ÷ Calories per serving x 100% = ___ % total Calories from fat
Amount of fat in a serving of food ÷ DV for fat x 100% = ___ % DV
Energy Values Per Gram:
A gram of carbohydrate is 4 kcalories of energy, protein is 4 kcalories of energy, fat is 9 kcalories of energy, and alcohol 7 kcalories of energy.
As a percent of calories consumed, how much saturated fatty acids does the Dietary Guidelines recommend?
Less than 10%.
identify the level of a nutrient.
identify a food-health relationship.
links foods to body structure and/or function.
controls passage of food, drink, and air into either the esophagus or trachea.
Upper esophageal sphincter:
allows passage of food particles from the mouth to the esophagus.
Lower esophageal sphincter (also known as the cardiac sphincter):
allows passage of food particles from the esophagus to the stomach. This sphincter also prevents food particles and stomach juices from backing up from the stomach into the esophagus.
allows passage of food particles and digestive juices to flow from the stomach to the small intestines. The sphincter also prevents food particles and intestinal juices from backing up from the small intestine into the stomach.
allows passage of GI tract substances from the small intestine to the large intestine.
wavelike muscular contractions of the GI tract that push its contents along.
Functions of HCl in the stomach:
HCl aides in the digestion of proteins (breaking them down further). HCl also prevents bacteria growth in the stomach and kills most bacteria that enters the digestive tract through the stomach.
Why does HCl not burn a hole in the lining of the stomach?
It also secretes mucus. It is a slippery substance that is secreted by the cells of the GI tract that doesn't allow HCl to come into contact with the stomach lining.
What are the anatomical names for the parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
Describe the lining of the small intestine.
wrinkled into hundreds of folds. Villi - fingerlike projections from the folds of the intestine. Microvilli - tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells.
Describe the anatomical association of the lymph system and the vascular (blood) system with the small intestine.
Each villi that is on the small intestines has vessels from both the lymph and vascular system running through them. The vessels for the vascular system absorb the water-soluble nutrients. The vessels for the lymph system absorb chylomicrons, which are packaged cells that carry fat-soluble nutrients.
Distinguish between endogenous water and water from dietary sources? Which is greater?
Endogenous water is water that comes from within the body where as dietary water sources come from outside food sources that are ingested by the person. Endogenous water is a greater source of water that the body uses; about 90% of water absorbed for digestion is reabsorbed into the lumen of the small intestines.
What types of molecules are absorbed directly into blood from the small intestine?
Water-soluble nutrients. These are monosaccharides, amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, minerals, and small (short-chain) fatty acids.
What types of molecules get absorbed into the lymph system after digestion and transport into small intestinal cells?
Chylomicrons. These nutrients are fat-soluble vitamins, fatty acids, and cholesterol.
How does this group of molecules eventually enter into the blood system for further distribution to body cells?
The lymph system eventually pours into the bloodstream through the thoracic duct near the heart, allowing these nutrients into the vascular system.
nutrients (water and small lipids) are absorbed by simple diffusion. They cross into intestinal cells freely.
some nutrients (water-soluble vitamins) need a specific carrier to transport them from one side of the cell membrane to the other.
Some nutrients (glucose and amino acids) must be absorbed actively. These nutrients move against a concentration gradient, which requires energy as well as a carrier.
manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine.
conducts pancreatic juice from the pancreas to the small intestine.
conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine.
Large Intestine (Colon):
absorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum.
microscopically small organisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa.
dietary fiber provides a major source of energy for "good" bacteria.
live microbes that seem to benefit health. The good news about a probiotic like yogurt is that it can help alleviate diarrhea, constipation, inflammatory, bowel disease, ulcers, allergies, lactose intolerance, infant colic, enhance immune function, and protect against colon cancer.
If a person had an abnormal overproduction and secretion of gastrin, what might be the consequence? If this GI problem occurred, what might a physician recommend as strategies to prevent or alleviate symptoms?
A person might have stomach ulcers or acid reflux. A physician might recommend that eliminate any food that routinely causes indigestion and avoid coffee and caffeine- and alcohol-containing beverages.
What is H. pylori and what condition results if there is too much in the stomach? What treatment is imperative if H. Pylori is the cause?
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial infection caused by the use of certain anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen etc. Ulcers develop in response to too much H. pylori. They need physician-prescribed antibiotics.
What signals secretin output and what is the role of secretin in GI function?
Acidic chyme in the small intestine signals secretin output. The role is to produce bicarbonate rich juices secreted into the small intestine to maintain a slightly alkaline pH.
Which GI hormone slows gastric motility and what signals its secretion? What other roles in GI regulation does this hormone play?
Gastrin and it is signaled by food in the stomach. It releases hydrochloric acid into the stomach to maintain an acidic pH.
Are bacteria present in the small intestine and are they absorbed?
Bacteria is present in the small intestine and it is not absorbed because the villi pulls in all the nutrients and leaves the bacteria out.
What are the roles of the liver in terms of glucose storage, cholesterol monitoring, and detoxification?
When digested sugars enter the liver, they are met by enzymes which grab onto glucose molecules and create glycogen chains. The chains are stored in the liver and are released between meals to keep energy up. The liver also serves as a health club and detox level, checking for cholesterol levels and poison types.
simple sugars. Glucose (blood sugar), Fructose (sweetest sugar), and Galactose (naturally occurring sugar).
sugars composed of pairs of monosaccharides; Maltose (two glucose) (least common ex. malt liquor), Sucrose (glucose and fructose) (table sugar), and Lactose (glucose and galactose) (found in dairy).
large molecules composed of chains of monosaccharides; Glycogen, Starches, Fiber
What would happen to a human (or any animal) if they were fed a diet devoid of carbohydrates, but with all other essential nutrients?
A person would not survive without carbohydrates because glucose and its storage form glycogen provide about half of all the energy muscles and other body tissues use.
each carbon atom has four bonds; each oxygen, two bonds; and each hydrogen, one bond. Known as blood sugar and is essential to energy for all activities.
has the same chemical formula as glucose but its structure differs. The arrangement of the atoms in fructose stimulates the taste buds on the tongue to produce a sweet sensation.
Naturally Occurring Sugar:
foods such as milk (lactose) and orange juice (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) are natural sources of sugar and such foods are generally also rich in other nutrients such as Vitamin C or calcium.
Food such as soda pop and cookies have sugars (purified from cane or sugar beets) or a sweet syrup (such as high fructose corn syrup) added as ingredients during processing.
is found to only a limited extent in meats and not at all in plants. It is made up of many glucose molecules linked together in highly branched chains. It is stored in the liver and muscles.
Plants store glucose as starches which are long branched or unbranched chains of hundreds of thousands glucose molecules linked together. Grains are the richest food source in starches. Contains alpha 1-4 linkages.
a component of plant cell walls is a long chain of glucose units. It contains beta 1-4 linkages. It is an insoluble dietary fiber and is in wheat bran.
What negative health or dietary issues have researchers documented as a result of excessive added sugar intake?
They favor fat-making pathways and impair the fat-clearing pathways in the liver. Increases the risk of heart disease. Also leaves risk of diabetes, inflammation, and hypertension. Contribute to nutrient deficiencies by displacing nutrients. Can contribute to tooth decay or dental caries.
Is it true that sugary foods cause hyperactivity in children?
the structural parts of plants and thus are found in all plant-derived foods - vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes. They are not digested by human enzymes.
Can a nutritional biochemist analyze stool samples (i.e. feces) to quantify the amount of dietary fiber in your diet?
Soluble Dietary Fiber:
dissolve in water, form gels, and are easily digested by bacteria in the colon. Commonly found in oats, barley, legumes, and citrus fruits. Associated with protecting against heart disease and diabetes by lowering blood cholesterol and glucose levels.
Insoluble Dietary Fiber:
do not dissolve in water, do not form gels, and are less readily fermented. Commonly found in whole grains (bran) and vegetables. Associated with promoting bowel movements, alleviating constipation, and preventing diverticular disease.
Compare and contrast the digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates verses dietary fiber.
About 98% of dietary carbohydrates are digested and absorbed in the small intestine. Dietary Fiber is resistant to digestion in the small intestine, but some dietary fiber can be fermented by bacteria in the large intestine to short chain fatty acids.
Do humans obtain a significant amount of calories from dietary fiber? Do cows?
Humans obtain a relatively small amount of calories from dietary fiber but cows receive a lot.
Why do some nutritionists doubt the usefulness of following a low glycemic diet?
They say their is not sufficient enough research to follow this diet. Glycemic index has been determined for very few foods and when there is, it's based on multiple tests with wide variation of result. It's also not provided on food labels or intuitively apparent.
the body needs to have a stable amount of glucose in the blood. Two hormones produced by the pancreas regulate - insulin and glucagon.
stimulates cells to take in glucose where it can be used as energy, stored as glycogen, or converted to fat and stored, effectively lowering blood glucose.
stimulates the release of glucose stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles.
What is the role of muscle and liver glycogen in glucose homeostasis?
The liver and muscle cells can assemble the small glucose units into long, branching chains of glycogen for storage. The liver cells can also convert extra glucose to fat.
Type 1 Diabetes:
the pancreas loses its ability to synthesize the hormone insulin. Without insulin, the body's energy metabolism changes that could threaten survival. People must receive insulin through injections or external pumps.
Type 2 Diabetes:
insulin resistance, a reduced sensitivity to insulin. Moderate weight loss and regular physical activity can help this.
Are all persons with type 2 diabetes obese?
Most people with Type 2 diabetes are obese but not all. Can also come from poor dietary habits, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, aging and physical inactivity. It can ALSO be inherited.
What does it mean to have insulin insensitivity (also called insulin resistance)?
Muscle and adipose cells cannot remove glucose from the blood as liver cells continue to make it. To compensate, the pancreas secretes larger amounts of insulin and plasma insulin concentration can rise to abnormally high levels. Over time, the pancreas becomes less able to compensate for the cells' reduced sensitivity to insulin and hyperglycemia worsens.
List the symptoms the doctor used to diagnose her. Does Emily need insulin injections and why? What kind of changes might she have to make to his diet?
Hyperglycemia, excessive thirst, frequent urination, excessive weight loss despite increased appetite, electrolyte imbalance, diabetic acidosis, diabetic coma. Emily will need insulin because her body can't make it. She will need more nutrients in her diet.
She has always enjoyed having a cookie at the end of a meal and she believes this caused her diabetes and that she should never have another cookie again. What would you tell Matt's grandmother?
I would tell her some people get type 2 diabetes with age. She can still have her cookie a day if she regularly exercises because that often improves insulin sensitivity.
Explain to her the reasons for her condition and what is happening in her gut to cause her symptoms. Keep in mind that she needs her calcium.
She could be lactose intolerant. This happens when more lactose is consumed than the available lactase can handle, lactose molecules remain in the intestine undigested, attracting water and causing bloating, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Most lactose intolerant people can eat foods containing up to 6 grams of lactose, eat yogurt containing live bacteria, hard cheeses, take enzyme tablets, and take vitamins.
amino acids and a methyl group; low risk for tooth decay, few calories, and components are absorbed.
Sucrose with Cl atoms; no calories, low risk for tooth decay, heat stable, made from sugar, and sucralose is not absorbed.
Explain the ADI for aspartame.
The ADI for aspartame is 50 mg/kg body weight (18 cans of diet soda).
Interestingly, epidemiological studies find an inverse relationship between carbohydrate intake and body weight. What does this mean? What is the most probable explanation?
Those with the highest carbohydrate intake have the lowest body weight and vice versa. Dietary Fiber is part of the explanation for this.
When eaten in excess of need, energy from added sugars contributes to...
body fat stores, just as excess energy from fat or protein.
When total energy intake is controlled, moderate amounts of sugar...
do not cause obesity.