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This is Ms. Massaro's study guide, converted to flash cards by Jacob Sheldon

Cause and Results of the Black Death

Bubonic Plague killed 1/3 of Europe's population; resulted in more food and more trade

Origin of Renaissance

French for "rebirth"; began in Italy

Medici Family

Founded Renaissance artists

Civic Humanism

Use your talents for your city


power; "the end justifies the means"

Characteristics of Renaissance Art

3d perspective; realism; idealism; individualism


Sculptor of Italian Renaissance

Da Vinci

"Renaissance man"; painter, scientist, engineer, inventor


Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

Van Eyck

Northern Renaissance in England

Elizabethan Age

Renaissance in England


Pardons issued by the pope that could be bought to reduce time in purgatory

Luther and his beliefs and concerns

Started the Protestant Reformation in Germany

Diet of Worms

A council of German Princes

Ideas of Calvin


Origin of Calvin's Movement



The idea that god knew who would be saved before they were born

King Henry VIII

Started the Church of England to divorce his wife

Catholic or Counter Reformation

Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to the Protestant Reformation


Catholic Missionaries


French Calvinist Protestants


Non-religious (worldly, not spiritually)

Thomas More

Wrote Utopia about a perfect place

Council of Trent

Meeting of Catholic leaders that banned the sale of indulgences and reiterated need for church leaders


Church court in Rome that had trials for non-catholics


Making money off of trade


Spanish conquerors

Renaissance Contributions to the Age of Exploration

Opened people's minds to new ideas

Columbian Exchange

The trade of goods, animals, and people between Europe and its colonies

Disease the Killed Many Native Americans

Small pox

Technology and Exploration

Lateen sails, Caravel, ship building, navigation

Results of Spanish Conquest

Aztecs and Incas both destroyed; Spanish stole silver


conquered the Aztecs


His crew circumnavigated the world


conquered the Incas


Thought he was in Asia; he enslaved Natives

Encomienda System

Colonists giving land and slaves in exchange for converting Natives to Christianity


Colonies were only to develop money and trade materials for Britain


Economic system driven by private individuals

Workers on Plantations (During Exploration)

Native Americans

Middle Passage

Brutal trip bringing slaves to the colonies


Government in which church and state are joined

Absolute Monarchy

government in which all power is centralized by a national monarch

Act of Supremacy

Issued by King Henry VIII; his people must take an oath to him

Divine Right of Kings

Belief that monarchs receive their power from god

King Louis XIV of France

"Sun King"; palace at Versailles; took all power form the government

Peter the Great of Russia

Westernized Russia

Queen Elizabeth I of England

Got her policies accepted because of her relationship with Parliament

Disagreements between Charles I of England and English Parliament

Led to English Civil War

King James II of England and the English Glorious Revolution

King James II replaced by William and Mary

English Government after Glorious Revolution

Constitutional Monarchy

Henry of Navarre

Gave freedoms to English citizens

Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre

Queen of France ordered killing of all Huguenots in Paris

Edict of Nantes

Henry of Navarre's agreement to give French Protestants limited freedom

King Philip of Spain

Absolute monarch of Spain; devout Catholic; built Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada

Naval fleet assembled by Philip of Spain

Sea Dogs

English pirates

Charles I of England and the English Civil War

Charles I was beheaded during English Civil War

Thomas Hobbes and the State of Nature

"solitary, nasty, poor, short life"

Oliver Cromwell

Lord Protector of England after English Civil War


Russian Emporer

Ivan the Terrible

Russian Czar who killed his own son


Telescope; church opposed his ideas


calculus; laws of gravity


Polish astronomer; "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"


New philosophers on France

Lock and Democracy

father of democracy

Mary Wollstonecraft

English writer who advocated quality in education


People who were born good but then were corrupted


separation of powers




Life is short and bad

Adam Smith

Scottish economist who wrote On The Wealth of Nations

Geocentric Theory

Earth is center of universe

Heliocentric Theory

sun is center of universe

How the French Revolution changed everyday life

Churches closed, clothing changed, playing cards replaced

3 symbols of the French Revolution

storming the Bastille, guillotine, execution of Louis XVI

Execution of Louis XVI

horrified other Europeans; French rejoiced

Great Fear

A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789

Reign of Terror

10 month period when 17,000 French were executed

National Assembly

Proclaimed France a republic

Olympe de Gouges

wrote the Declaration of The Right of Woman and the Female Citizen

Where was Napoleon born?



Question Napoleon asked the French people; "Do You Want To Be an Empire?"

Napoleon was Exiled Twice to...

Elba then St. Helena

Napoleon's Biggest Enemy

Great Britain


positive religious reform that named Catholicism the official religion of France

Napoleon vs. Russia

Napoleon failed miserably

Napoleon's Final Defeat

Battle of Waterloo


Pride in one's nation


The heart of Italian unification


The brain of Italian unification


The sword of Italian unification

Italian Reforms

labor and transportation reforms

Triple Alliance

Italy, Germany, Austrian-Hungarian Empire

Otto von Bismark

Prussian military leader "blood and iron" in Germany

The Austro-Prussian War

Unified the Northern German States

The Franco-Prussian War

unified northern German states to southern German states

German Reforms

what came for Germany

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