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99 terms

World Civ Mid Term Study Guide

This is Ms. Massaro's study guide, converted to flash cards by Jacob Sheldon
STUDY
PLAY
Cause and Results of the Black Death
Bubonic Plague killed 1/3 of Europe's population; resulted in more food and more trade
Origin of Renaissance
French for "rebirth"; began in Italy
Medici Family
Founded Renaissance artists
Civic Humanism
Use your talents for your city
Machiavelli
power; "the end justifies the means"
Characteristics of Renaissance Art
3d perspective; realism; idealism; individualism
Donatello
Sculptor of Italian Renaissance
Da Vinci
"Renaissance man"; painter, scientist, engineer, inventor
Michelangelo
Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Van Eyck
Northern Renaissance in England
Elizabethan Age
Renaissance in England
Indulgences
Pardons issued by the pope that could be bought to reduce time in purgatory
Luther and his beliefs and concerns
Started the Protestant Reformation in Germany
Diet of Worms
A council of German Princes
Ideas of Calvin
Predestination
Origin of Calvin's Movement
Switzerland
Predestination
The idea that god knew who would be saved before they were born
King Henry VIII
Started the Church of England to divorce his wife
Catholic or Counter Reformation
Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to the Protestant Reformation
Jesuits
Catholic Missionaries
Huguenots
French Calvinist Protestants
Secular
Non-religious (worldly, not spiritually)
Thomas More
Wrote Utopia about a perfect place
Council of Trent
Meeting of Catholic leaders that banned the sale of indulgences and reiterated need for church leaders
Inquisition
Church court in Rome that had trials for non-catholics
Mercantilism
Making money off of trade
Conquistadors
Spanish conquerors
Renaissance Contributions to the Age of Exploration
Opened people's minds to new ideas
Columbian Exchange
The trade of goods, animals, and people between Europe and its colonies
Disease the Killed Many Native Americans
Small pox
Technology and Exploration
Lateen sails, Caravel, ship building, navigation
Results of Spanish Conquest
Aztecs and Incas both destroyed; Spanish stole silver
Cortes
conquered the Aztecs
Magellan
His crew circumnavigated the world
Pizarro
conquered the Incas
Columbus
Thought he was in Asia; he enslaved Natives
Encomienda System
Colonists giving land and slaves in exchange for converting Natives to Christianity
Colonialism
Colonies were only to develop money and trade materials for Britain
Capitalism
Economic system driven by private individuals
Workers on Plantations (During Exploration)
Native Americans
Middle Passage
Brutal trip bringing slaves to the colonies
Theocracy
Government in which church and state are joined
Absolute Monarchy
government in which all power is centralized by a national monarch
Act of Supremacy
Issued by King Henry VIII; his people must take an oath to him
Divine Right of Kings
Belief that monarchs receive their power from god
King Louis XIV of France
"Sun King"; palace at Versailles; took all power form the government
Peter the Great of Russia
Westernized Russia
Queen Elizabeth I of England
Got her policies accepted because of her relationship with Parliament
Disagreements between Charles I of England and English Parliament
Led to English Civil War
King James II of England and the English Glorious Revolution
King James II replaced by William and Mary
English Government after Glorious Revolution
Constitutional Monarchy
Henry of Navarre
Gave freedoms to English citizens
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Queen of France ordered killing of all Huguenots in Paris
Edict of Nantes
Henry of Navarre's agreement to give French Protestants limited freedom
King Philip of Spain
Absolute monarch of Spain; devout Catholic; built Spanish Armada
Spanish Armada
Naval fleet assembled by Philip of Spain
Sea Dogs
English pirates
Charles I of England and the English Civil War
Charles I was beheaded during English Civil War
Thomas Hobbes and the State of Nature
"solitary, nasty, poor, short life"
Oliver Cromwell
Lord Protector of England after English Civil War
Czar
Russian Emporer
Ivan the Terrible
Russian Czar who killed his own son
Galileo
Telescope; church opposed his ideas
Newton
calculus; laws of gravity
Copernicus
Polish astronomer; "On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres"
Philosophes
New philosophers on France
Lock and Democracy
father of democracy
Mary Wollstonecraft
English writer who advocated quality in education
Rousseau
People who were born good but then were corrupted
Montesquieu
separation of powers
Diderot
Encyclopedia
Hobbes
Life is short and bad
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote On The Wealth of Nations
Geocentric Theory
Earth is center of universe
Heliocentric Theory
sun is center of universe
How the French Revolution changed everyday life
Churches closed, clothing changed, playing cards replaced
3 symbols of the French Revolution
storming the Bastille, guillotine, execution of Louis XVI
Execution of Louis XVI
horrified other Europeans; French rejoiced
Great Fear
A wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of the Bastille in 1789
Reign of Terror
10 month period when 17,000 French were executed
National Assembly
Proclaimed France a republic
Olympe de Gouges
wrote the Declaration of The Right of Woman and the Female Citizen
Where was Napoleon born?
Corsica
Plebliscite
Question Napoleon asked the French people; "Do You Want To Be an Empire?"
Napoleon was Exiled Twice to...
Elba then St. Helena
Napoleon's Biggest Enemy
Great Britain
Concordat
positive religious reform that named Catholicism the official religion of France
Napoleon vs. Russia
Napoleon failed miserably
Napoleon's Final Defeat
Battle of Waterloo
Nationalism
Pride in one's nation
Mazzini
The heart of Italian unification
Cavour
The brain of Italian unification
Garibaldi
The sword of Italian unification
Italian Reforms
labor and transportation reforms
Triple Alliance
Italy, Germany, Austrian-Hungarian Empire
Otto von Bismark
Prussian military leader "blood and iron" in Germany
The Austro-Prussian War
Unified the Northern German States
The Franco-Prussian War
unified northern German states to southern German states
German Reforms
what came for Germany