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Integumentary & Skeletal System Study Guide
Terms in this set (73)
List the 8 main functions of the skin.
1. Mechanical damage (bumps)
2. Chemical damage (acids and bases)
3. Bacterial damage
4. UV Radiation
5. Thermal damage and regulation (hot and cold)
6. Desiccation (drying out)
7. Synthesizes Vitamin D
8. Acids in excretion of urea and uric acid
How does the skin regulate body temp?
heat loss: sweat glands activated and allows blood to flush skin capillary beds
heat retention: does NOT allow blood to flush cap. beds
List and explain the 4 main cells in the epidermis
1. Stratum basale
-90% cells keratinocytes
2. Stratum spinosum (prickly cell layer)
-thick layers of flattened cells, bundles of keratin
3. Stratum granulosum
-very thin regions
-last layer to retrieve nutrients
4. Stratum lucidum (clear layer)
-2-3 rows of clear, dead cells
-visible only in thick skin
a fibrous protein forming the main structural constituent of hair; tough
List the cells of the dermis.
fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells and white blood cells
List 2 layers of dermis and describe their functions.
-thin arrangement of collagen fibers
-nutrients to select layers of the epidermis and regulates temperature
-strength and elasticity
Where we get our fingerprints from
What are the functions of the hair?
-insulate human body
How does hair grow?
hair bulb nourishes hair with blood vessels, pushes old, dead cels up
What gives hair its color? Where can it be found?
What does the arrector pili do?
contracts to form goosebumps
List the 2 types of glands in the Int. system
sebaceous and sweat
What's the difference between eccrine and apocrine glands?
Eccrine- most abundant, response to heat and physical activity, TRUE SWEAT
Apocrine- stress, pain, etc.; absent before puberty, odorous
Secrete oily mixture of fatty material and cellular debris
The nail is made out of this...
Infection caused by Staph or Strep
Fever, pain, inflammation, stretched skin, swelling, heat, sweating, fatigue
Pink, water-filled, raised lesions that develop a yellow crust and rupture
Highly contagious staph infection
Boils, impetigo, cellulitis, bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome, septic arthritis
Chronic Condition. Reddened epidermal lesions covered by dry, silvery scales
Infection in a hair follicle or subcutaneous tissue
Disease of the sebaceous glands
Itchy, red, peeling condition of the skin caused by fungus
Growths caused by HPV, transmitted through contact
Itching, redness, swelling of the skin progressing to blistering. Caused by exposure of skin to chemicals and cause an allergic reaction (ex. Poison ivy)
Swollen and clogged veins in the extremities. Limb pain, ulcers, swelling, discoloration
Used when abnormal growths appear on skin that could be cancerous. Piece of the area is removed and tested in the lab
Used to detect allergy. Allergens applied to skin directly or injected directly under the first few layers of skin. Redness, itching, swelling indicative of a reaction
When a bacterial, fungal, or viral infection is suspected. May include tissues or fluids in affected area. Sample is then grown on different types of media in the lab to see what microorganism is causing the reaction
List the functions of the skeletal system.
-support and protection
-storage of inorganic materials
blood cell formation
The average adult skeleton has ___ bones total.
List the bones making up the axial skeleton
skull, hyoid, rib cage, vertebral column
List the bones of appendicular skeleton
pectoral girdle (and attached bones), pectoral girdle (hips) and attached ones
Describe the 4 shapes of bones
1. long bones
2. short bones
-connect to many bones
what is the significance of the periosteum?
dense connective tissue; forms and repairs bone
membrane lining medullary cavity
the medullary cavity houses _______
Name the 2 types of marrow, and what each does
red- blood cells
What and where are the two types of bone tissue?
-cortical (wall of diaphysis)
mature bone cell
cells with single nuclei that synthesize bone
type of bone cell that resorbs bone tissue
one of the numerous minute cavities in the substance of bone, supposed to contain nucleate cells
any of the minute tubes that form a network in bone and contain blood vessels
Any of the various canals in bone that transmit blood vessels from the periosteum into the bone
one of the hairlike channels ramifying a haversian system in bone and linking the lacunae with one another and with the haversian canal
synarthrotic; between bones that closely contact each other
Ex- sutures in skull
amphiarthrotic; hyaline cartilage connects
synovial; bone with rounded head, biggest range of movement
Ex- shoulders and hips
ball and socket
synovial; movement in only one plane
Ex- elbow, phalanges
synovial; one bone rotates within another
Ex- atlas and axis in cervical spine
synovial; bones complementary of each other, movement in two planes
Where is the primary ossification center?
shaft of bone, diaphysis
Where is the secondary ossification center?
ends of bone, epiphysis
What happens when the centers meet?
plate ossifies... done growing!
1. Osteoblasts break down calcified ________ ________ (A)
2. Osteoblasts invade open area to deposit new _______ _________ (B)
3. Osteoblasts ossify into _________ (C)
4. Osteocytes now _______ (D) blood cells
A. extracellular matrix
B. bone tissue
In bone reabsorption, as osteocytes continue to grow, what happens?
osteoclasts reabsorb old osteocytes to make room for new bone cells
What factors affect bone growth?
nutrition, hormonal secretions, physical exercise
-loss of bone
-spongy bone fractures easily
-causes: low calcium/vitamin D, low estrogen, diabetes
incomplete break, break on convex surface
incomplete longitudinal break
complete, fragments the bone
complete break, at right angle to axis of bone
break at an angle other than right angle to axis of the bone
break caused by twisting bone excessively
when a bone is forced out of joint cavity
most common form of arthritis; softening breakdown of cartilage, degenerative
autoimmune disease that causes joint stiffness and bone deformity
lateral curve in spine
swayback in lower region of spine
severe arthritis in spine and vertebrae fuse
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