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54 terms

history midterm

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What was the manor economy based on?
feudal system
How did agriculture technology change middle age society?
brought middle class, expanded production, increased trade, brought social changes
Why did catholic church have great power over people in middle ages?
missionaries, courts, tax, belief
What did 3 field system and other technologies contribute to agriculture revolution?
3 field system made continuous production, revolution opened trade routes, allowed for a bigger profit; middle class and guilds formed
Who contributed most to growth of towns during middle ages
merchants
cause of feudal development
need for protection (from vikings, attackers etc.)
what is papal supremacy and what established it?
authority over all secular rulers. established because church gained more power, and pope gained universal power
What was medieval worldview?
said that life is doomed since birth and that the world is full of lazy, ignorant, and mean people who only care about themselves
Why did black death spread quickly?
Trade, closed air circulation, bad living conditions
what was great schism in late middle ages?
Roman catholic church split when King of France did not like Italian pope and so he elected one of his one. There were 2 popes claiming authority over catholic church
causes and consequences of the peasant revolt in late middle ages?
cause for it due to terrible living conditions. they petitioned called for the abolition of serfdom, tithes and the game laws as well as the right to freely use the forests. The peasants also demanded that the poll tax be abolished
What was flagellant movement?
religious fanatics who roamed Europe during the Black Death, using switches and other items to whip themselves and each other, sometimes to the point of serious injury or even death. They did this while chanting religious songs, and considered that they were getting closer to god by self flagellation.
Reasons for spread of Christianity
missionaries, strong belief in religion, church controlling everyday life
Greco-roman and christian worldview
greco- temproal view, important piece not just part of transition. Christain- god at top, himan at middle, people here just to fill time until heaven/hell
Result of the crusades
Christianity and ideas spread; Tension between people. More trade as people become affiliated with more cultures
cause and effect of 100 year war
cause: english wanted french land, french wanted to extend power. England claimed french crown
Effect: Spurred sense of national feeling. French kings spread power. English rulers turned to parliament for funds. New weapons emerged
What makes magna carta important
document to protect the church and townspeople; said that all have to obey the law
What did artists of renaissance focus on
reflecting human concerns
Contributing factors to birth of renaissance in italy
many buildings survived middle ages; art flourished; new culture in ancient rome
Delay of renaissance to occur in northern Europe
monks and scholars preserved much of classical heritage. Latin survived as the language of the church
What method did Cervantes use who wrote Don Quixote,and what was his target
mocks romantic notions of medieval chivalry; target being the spanish royal court
Earliest renaissance humanist?
Francesco Petrarch
Main idea in book Utopia
describes an ideal society in which men and women live in peace and harmony. No one is idle, all are educated, and justice is used to end crime rather than eliminate the criminal
why does Florence symbolize energy of the Italian renaissance
center of architecture, papacy, art, engine that drives Italian renaissance
According to Machiavell (a realist, historian) a ruler should do what?
do whatever to sustain their powe
Renaissance scholars emphasized the study of?
humanism
Characteristics of the ideal renaissance person, as described in Castiglione's The Courtier
men: athletic but not overactive, good at games but not a gambler, not arrogant but smart. women: grateful and kind, lively but reserved. both: well-educated, mastered many skills
Important components of humanism?
focus on worldly subjects rather than religion; stressed education
similarities between middle ages and renaissance?
classical heritage preserved; latin survived
contributions of the medici family
banking and sponsors, gained control of florence government
What were the characteristics of the renaissance architecture?
columns, arches, and domes which were favored by the Greeks and Romans; rejected gothic style of late middle ages as disorderly
Contributions of Michelangelo
Greatest projects was huge mural to decorate the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Rome Famous architecture- dome of St. Peter's cathedral in Rome
Erasmus' work reflects the renaissance in what ways?
used humor to expose ignorant and immoral behavior which is all about the renaissance is showing reality
To Martin Luther, the answer to the question "How can I be saved?" is answered in what way?
through faith alone
After Henry VIII broke with the Church, what did he do and what document allowed him to accomplish what he did?
decided to take over the English Church and made himself the supreme ruler of the Church of England in 1534 by having Parliament pass the Act of Supremacy
What were the results of the Counter Reformation?
revival of the morality of the Catholic Church. The Council of Trent reaffirmed traditional Catholic views, such as the ideal that Salvation comes through faith and good works. Also, the Council provided stiff penalties for worldliness and corruption among the clergy, and established clergy-schools
Who were the individuals who challenged the Church before Luther?
John Wycliffe, Erasmus, Jan Hoos
what were Luther's grievances against the Church?
argument that indulgences had no place in the Bible, the pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory, and that Christians could be saved only through faith. upheld the Bible as the sole source of religious truth, and did not believe that priests or popes had special powers
What were some doctrinal differences between John Calvin and Martin Luther?
Calvin preached predestination, and that the world was divided into two types of people: saints and sinners. Calvinists stressed hard work, discipline, thrift, honesty and morality; believed in religious education of both men and women, agreeing with the ideas of Luther.
Who was Ignatius Loyola and what was his role in the Counter Reformation?
founded the Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits. He was a Spanish knight whose leg shattered in a crusade battle. He vowed to become a "soldier of God" and drew up a program that included spiritual and moral discipline, rigorous training, and absolute obedience to the Church. Jesuits also set up schools that taught humanist and Catholic beliefs in their territories.
What was the purpose of the Diet of Worms, and who was present?
Pope excommunicated Luther, the new Holy Roman Emperor summoned Luther to the Diet of Worms, which was an assembly of German princes. Luther, who was expecting to be able to defend the 95 theses and his writings, was simply ordered to give them up. Once again, Luther refused, and he was declared an outlaw, making it a crime for anyone in the empire to give him food or shelter
The Pope refused an annulment for Henry VIII for what reasons?
Henry VIII was married to, Catherine of Aragon, was the aunt of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. While popes had annulled marriages before, the Catholic Pope did not want to upset Charles V, so he refused to annul Henry VIII's marriage.
The Purpose and Outcome of the Council of Trent was?
was to establish the direction of the Catholic Reformation. The council reaffirmed traditional Catholic views, which Protestants had challenged. Salvation comes through good faith and works, and the Bible is not the only source of religious truth. Also, the council took steps to end abuses in the Church, such as worldliness and corruption among the clergy.
The Protestant Reformation generated a number of different religious groups and many were persecuted. Which groups received the greatest persecution?
anabaptists and jews
What was the purpose and outcome of the Diet of Augsburg?
Augsburg was called to settle the disputes between Holy Roman emperor Charles V and Lutheran princes. Charles V tried to force the Lutheran princes back into the Catholic Church, but with little success. Finally, they reached a settlement in 1555, which allowed each prince to decide which religion (Catholic/Lutheran) would be followed in his lands.
Why did Europeans seek alternate routes around the coast of africa and asia?
Europe was introduced to many luxury goods from Asia that they wanted to trade with. As Europe's population increased, the demands for these goods did as well. Europeans felt the need to completely control the trade market in order to fulfill their desire of wealth.
What was the role of Bartolome de las casas during the period of exploration and colonization?
a priest condemned the evils of the encomienda system. He detailed the horrors that Spanish rule had brought to native americans and pleaded with the king to end the abuse. Known for the defense rights of the native people of the Americas; He was called "Defender of the Indians"
Purpose of the treat of tordesillas and why it was negotiated?
was to divide up newly discovered lands outside of Europe between Spain and Portugal in 1494. Also to clear up confusion on newly claimed land in the New World. The early 1400s brought about great advances in European exploration. Portuguese also wanted to protect their monopoly on the trade route to Africa
What technological changes assisted the european merchangts on their sea voyage?
Cartographers, or map-makers, created more accurate maps and charts. Sailors also learned how to use the astrolabe, which was an instrument used to find a person's latitude at sea. Also, better ships were designed to increase the capacity of them. The Portuguese developed the caravel, which combined the square sails of European ships with Arab lateen, or triangular sails.
Hernando Cortes known for?
Landed in mexico and was helped by indian woman (malinche) who served as translator and advisor. Made alliances with discontented groups and helped fight the aztecs. Demolished Tenochtitlán
Pizarro known for?
Arrived in Peru, he captured Atahualpa (ruler of incan) and demanded ransom for the ruler. Overran the Incan heartland and still killed ruler once received money.
What were the motivations for the atlantic slave trade?
to fill labor shortage in spain's American empire. Grew to profitable business. Relied on African rulers and traders to seize captives in the interior and bring them to coastal trading posts.
Leading explorers and cartographers of the era of expansion?
Prince Henry (mapped coast of africa wanted to spread Christianity), Vasco de Gama (led 4 ships around cape of good hope), Batholomeu Dias (rounded southern tip of africa), Columbus (wanted to reach the indies, went to east asia, cruised carribean), Magellan, Amerigo Vespucci
Who were important french explorers and map makers?
Jaque Cartie, Champlain