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Islam Test 1
Terms in this set (20)
The prophet Muhammed (570-632)
Who is the founder of Islam?
While Muhammed is praised as being the founder of Islam, he instructed the Islamic people not to praise him as then they would no be praising the true God.
Just how important is the founder of Islam to the religion?
When the Prophet Muhammad moved from Mecca to Medina, and set up the first Islamic state.
What is the Hijra?
A cubed building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and is the most sacred site in Islam. It is thought to have been built by Abraham and his son Isaac
What is the Kaaba and why is it important for Muslims?
It is a shrine located on the Temple Mountain the Old City of Jerusalem. It is also thought to be the place where Abraham almost sacrificed his son.
What is the dome of the Rock?
Because it worships someone other than God, it worships where Abraham was prepared to sacrifice his son.
How does the Dome of the Rock illustrate the syncretistic nature of Islamic art?
Hypostyle, Four-Iwan, Central Plan
What are the three types of mosque plans that exist in the Islamic world?
-Both build under the Umayyad Dynasty
-Both have columns with carithean capitals supporting arches.
-Both use Byzantine textiles and art in the interior
What are some similar elements that the Dome of the Rock and the mosque of Damascus share?
-Great Mosque of Damascus (706-715): built during the reign of the caliph al-Walid view of the qibla on the south end.
-Mosque Masjid al-Nabawi:built by Muhammad, next to the house where he settled after his journey to Medina in 622 AD. It was an open-air building with a raised platform for the reading of the Qur'an.
Name date and describe two Hypostyle mosques that have similar characteristics.
Muslim, Christian, Jewish
Which cultures overlapped (or overtook one another) on the sites of the Dome of the Rock, the Great mosque of Damascus?
Mihrab: A semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla (Direction of the Kaaba)
Minbar: Where prayer leader stands in mosque to direct prayer.
Minaret: A tall slender tower where prayer can be held from.
Maqsurah: An enclosure, a box or wooden screen near the mihrab or the center of the qibla wall
Qibla: Direction of the Kaaba
Muezzin: A man who calls Muslims to prayer from the minaret of a mosque.
What is: a mihrab, minbar, minaret, maqsura, qibla, muezzin?
-Made of Brick
- Fluted dome on crossing
-Mosaics(floor and ceilings)
-Sassanian style sculptures
-Carved stone floral decoration
-Byzantine Stone carved capitals
What was the stylistic innovation developed in the mosque of Abu Dulaf that became visible in other mosques constructed in lands governed by Abbasid governors?
Islamic Art is the utilization by the Muslim world of the material, aesthetic, and emotional order of the conquered territories. It is an overlay. It is possible that they adapted the syncretism of the Christain art. Islamic Art is Syncretistic and adheres to no specific style it grafts itself onto local styles
How is Islamic syncretism similar to that seen in early Christian art?
Arabian, Middle Eastern, Northern Africa, and Southwestern Asia.
In the light of question 13, which common Mediterranean culture have Christian and Islamic civilizations been marked by?
-They are built for pleasure rather than power
-For the princes to meet with nomads
What are some reasons early Muslim aristocracy built desert palaces?
What some common elements most early Umayyad/Abbasid desert palaces share?
-Villa Rustica at Boscoreale
-Villa Rustica Belgium and Spain
-Palace of Diocletian at Split
What are some precedents for most early Umayyad/Abbasid desert palaces?
They where built on private needs and whims.
What do Newport mansions and early Umayyad/Abbasid desert palaces share in terms of their stylistic and decorative characteristics?
A thing used to make something look more attractive but usually having no practical purpose, especially a small object such as a figurine. The west used ornament as a way to tell stories, blurring the lines between decoration and ornament, while the East used it simply for aesthetic appeal.
What is ornament, and what are the differences between the way the West and the East perceive it?
Are there any instances in Western art when ornament becomes a prominent aspect of an artistic style? Please name 2 such periods.
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