native american civilizations of the eastern region of north america that created distinctive earthen works that served as elaborate burial places
part of the Iroquoian language group, and were located in the northwestern parts of the state - had little contact with early colonists - had several major conflicts with the colonists over land and trading practices
L'Anse aux Meadows
Site where Viking artifacts were found, indicating their presence around 1000 A.D.
Christian warriors sent to regain the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims that controlled
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic. (p. 427)
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
Ferdinand and Isabella
The king and queen of Spain who gave Columbus the funds that he needed to find a route to Asia.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
Juan Ponce de Leon
Spanish Explorer who discovered and named Florida while searching for the "Fountian of Youth"
saw tons of new flora,first to see buffalo,first to see grand canyon(conquistador)
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
A grant of land made by Spain to a settler in the Americas, including the right to use Native Americans as laborers on it
The Muslim kingdom that Spain later conquested. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
The effort by Christian leaders to drive the Muslims out of Spain, lasting from the 1100s until 1492.
Italian explorer who led the English expedition in 1497 that discovered the mainland of North America and explored the coast from Nova Scotia to Newfoundland (ca. 1450-1498)
Giovanni da Verazano
An Italian explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. He is renowned as the first European to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between South and North Carolina and Newfoundland
French explorer who explored the St. Lawrence river and laid claim to the region for France (1491-1557)
most prosperous and populous of the Spanish outposts, largest European settlement west of the Mississippi and north of Mexico
New Mexican uprising which destroyed every Catholic church, killed priests and Spanish settlers
Natives of California who were taught horticulture and arts and crafts by the Spanish missionaries; converted to Christianity and abandoned their culture