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the process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual's personality, thereby conditioning the individual to conform to society's expectations.


Rewards or punishments used to force conformity to norms.

formal sanction

A reward or punishment that is given by some formal organization or regulatory body, such as the government, the police, a corporation, or a school

informal sanction

A spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval given by an individual or group.

social control

The enforcing of norms through either internalization or sanctions.


A system of beliefs or ideas that justifies some social, moral, religious, political, or economic interests held by a social group or by society.

social movement

A long-term conscious effort to promote or prevent social change usually involving large numbers of people


The knowledge and tools that people use to ,manipulate their environment for practical purposes.

cultural lag

A situation in which some aspects of the culture change less rapidly, or lag behind, other aspects of the same culture.

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