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consists of bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa
lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. Commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones
red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
yellow bone marrow
functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity
smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones.
covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints; makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other.
curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw.
normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons
consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together
aka soft spots; normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate passage of the infant through the birth canal
allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.
cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. Is located between the pubic bones in the front of the pelvis
outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible
bands of fibrous tissue that forms joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage
a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as the shoulder, elbow
makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear
forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium
external auditory meatus
located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull; is the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear
aka breastbone; forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts
aka funny bone; a large projection on the upper end of the ulna; forms the point of the elbow and exposes a nerve that tingles when struck
slightly curved, traingular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back.
aka tailbone; forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together
made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other. they are shock absorber and allow for movement of the spinal cord
forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
aka hip socket; large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
holds a doctor of chiropractice degree and specializes the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine
aka orthopedist, is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
holds a doctor of osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
holds a doctor of podiatry and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
blood within a joint due to a joint injury but can also occur spontaneously in patients taking blood-thinning medication or those having a blood clotting disorder
inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint
aka spinal osteoarthritis; degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
abbreviated as RA; a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked.
form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disease that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
aka slipped or ruptured disk; breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum
congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it.
bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous (scar-like) tissue and leads to uneven growth, brittleness, and deformity
aka adult rickets; abnormal softening of bones in adults and is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, and/or phosphate
aka osteitis deformans; bone disease of unknown cause; characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
infantile osteomalacia, a deficiency disease occuring in children; characterized by defective bone growth, results from a vit. D deficiency
formerly known as dwarfism; results from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length
secondary bone cancer
describes tumors that have metastasized (spread) to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
a marked loss of bone density and increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging
thinner than average bone density in a young person; describes the condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk for developing it
aka vertebral crush fracture; occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself. Are sometimes caused by the spontaneous collapse of weakened vertebrae or injury
aka fractured wrist; occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
osteoporotic hip fracture
aka broken hip; usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously of as the result in the loss of function, mobility, independence, or death
aka simple fracture or a complete fracture; bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin
occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain, this is due to bones being weakened by osteoporosis or to a disease process such as cancer
a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart; results of a sever twisting motion such as in a sports injury
overuse injury, is a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact
can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
aka crepitus; is the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together; also describes the crackling sound heard in lungs
bone marrow biopsy
diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood test
magnetic resonance imaging
used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
ultrasonic bone density testing
a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass. sound waves are used to take measurements of the calcenaeous bone
dual x-ray absorptiometry
low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density. This test produces more accurate results than ultrasonic bone density testing
allogenic bone marrow transplant
uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling
autologous bone marrow transplant
the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed
mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is especially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
total hip replacement
aka total hip arthroplasty; performed to restore a damaged hip to full function
bone-conserving hip resurfacing
an alternative to removing the head of the femur and a metal cap is placed over the head of the femure
performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk. A thin tube is inserted through the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it with a laser
performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures; it is minimally invasive and bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal cord
surgical removal of a portion of the skull; used to treat craniostenosis or to relieve increased intracranial pressure due to swelling of the brain
surgical incision or opening into the skull; performed to gain access to the brain to remove a tumor, to relieve intracranial pressure, or to obtain access for other surgical procedures
aka manipulation; is the attempted realignmnet of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
aka stabilization; act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing
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