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225 terms

bio 100 ch. 3

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skeletal system
consists of bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa
periosteum
tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone
peri-
surrounding
compact bone
dense, hard, and very strong bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones
spongy bone
lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone. Commonly found in the ends and inner portions of long bones
medullary cavity
located in the shaft of a long bone and is surrounded by compact bone
endosteum
tissue that lines the medullary cavity
end-
within
red bone marrow
located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes
hemopoietic
pertaining to the formation of blood cells
hem/o
blood
-poietic
pertaining to
yellow bone marrow
functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity
cartilage
smooth, rubbery, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones.
articular cartilage
covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints; makes smooth joint movement possible and protects the bones from rubbing against each other.
meniscus
curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw.
diaphysis
shaft of a long bone
epiphysis
covered with articular cartilage and is the wide end of a long bone.
foramen
opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass
process
normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons
joints
aka articulations, are the place of union between two or more bones.
fibrous joint
consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together
fontanelles
aka soft spots; normally present on the skull of a newborn. These flexible soft spots facilitate passage of the infant through the birth canal
cartilaginous joint
allow only slight movement and consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.
pubic symphysis
cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth. Is located between the pubic bones in the front of the pelvis
synovial joint
created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions
synovial capsule
outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint
synovial membrane
lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid.
synovial fluid
flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible
ligaments
bands of fibrous tissue that forms joints by connecting one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage
bursa
a fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as the shoulder, elbow
axial skeleton
protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory system
appendicular skeleton
makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction
skull
consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and six bones in the middle ear
cranium
made up of the following eight bones, is the portion of the skull that encloses the brain
crani
brain
frontal bone
forms the forehead
parietal bone
form most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium
occiptial bone
forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium
temporal bone
form the sides and base of the cranium
sphenoid bone
forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit
ethmoid bone
forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium
auditory ossicle
six tiny bones of the middle ear
external auditory meatus
located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull; is the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear
nasal bones
form the upper part of the bridge of the nose
zygomatic bones
aka cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bone
maxillary bones
aka maxillae, form most of the upper jaw
palatine bones
form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose
lacrimal bone
make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye
inferior conchae
thin, scroll-like bones that form part of the interior of the nose
vomer bone
forms the base of the nasal septum
mandible
aka jawbone; only movable bone of the skull
temporomandibular joint
where the mandible is attached to the skull
thoracic cavity
the bony structure that protects the heart and lungs
ribs
aka costals
cost
rib
sternum
aka breastbone; forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts
manubrium
bony structure that forms of the upper portion of the sternum
body of the sternum
bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum
xiphoid process
structure made of cartilage that forms the lower part of the sternum
pectoral girdle
supports the arms and hands; aka shoulder girdle
clavicle
aka collar bone; a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula
scapula
aka shoulder blade
acromion
an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder
humerus
bone of the upper arm
radius
smaller and shorter bone in the forearm; runs up the thumb side of the forearm
ulna
larger and longer bone of the forearm
olecranon process
aka funny bone; a large projection on the upper end of the ulna; forms the point of the elbow and exposes a nerve that tingles when struck
carpals
bones that form the wrist
metacarpal
five bones that form the palms of the hand
phalanges
14 bones of the fingers
vertebrae
bony structure units of the spinal cord
cervical vertebrae
first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck
thoracic vertebrae
make up the 2nd set of 12 vertebrae and form the outward curve of the spine
lumbar vertebrae
make up the 3rd set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine
sacrum
slightly curved, traingular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back.
coccyx
aka tailbone; forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of 4 small vertebrae that are fused together
intervertebral disks
made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other. they are shock absorber and allow for movement of the spinal cord
pelvic girdle
protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities; aka pelvic or hips
ilium
broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone
sacroiliac
slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium
sacr/o
sacrum
ili
ilium
ischium
forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting
pubis
forms the anterior portion of the pubic bone, is located just below the urinary bladder
pubic bones
formed by the ileum, ischium, and pubis
acetabulum
aka hip socket; large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint
femur
upper leg bone; aka thigh bone; the largest bone
knees
complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg
patella
aka kneecap; bony anterior portion of the knee
popliteal
referring to the posterior space behind the knee where the ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located
cruciate ligaments
make possible the movements of the knee
tibia
aka shinbone; larger, weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg
fibula
smaller of the two bones of the lower leg
malleolus
rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle
ankles
form the joint between the lower leg and the foot and each are made up of 7 tarsal
tarsal
7 of them make up the ankle
talus
anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula
calcaneus
aka heel bone; largest of the tarsal bones
metatarsals
form that part of the foot to which the toes are attached
phalanges
bones of the toes
chiropractor
holds a doctor of chiropractice degree and specializes the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine
orthopedic surgeon
aka orthopedist, is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles
osteopath
holds a doctor of osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation
podiatrist
holds a doctor of podiatry and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot
ankylosis
loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure
ankyl
crooked, bent, or stiff
arthrosclerosis
stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly
bursitis
inflammation of a bursa
burs
bursa
chondromalacia
abnormal softening of cartilage
chondroma
a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells
costochondritis
inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum
cost/o
rib
hallux valgus
aka bunion; an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe
hemarthrosis
blood within a joint due to a joint injury but can also occur spontaneously in patients taking blood-thinning medication or those having a blood clotting disorder
synovitis
inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint
dislocation
aka luxation; total displacement of a bone from its joint
subluxation
partial displacement of a bone from its joint
arthritis
inflammatory condition of one or more joints
osteoarthritis
aka wear-and-tear arthritis; is most commonly associated with aging
spondylosis
aka spinal osteoarthritis; degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function
spondyl
vertebrae
gouty arthritis
aka gout; a type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints
rheumatoid arthritis
abbreviated as RA; a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked.
ankylosing spondylitis
form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae
ankylosing
progressive stiffening of a joint or joints
juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
autoimmune disease that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue
herniated disk
aka slipped or ruptured disk; breaking apart of an intervertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots
lumbago
aka low back pain; is pain of the lumber region of the spine
-ago
disease conditioned
spondylolisthesis
forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum
-listhesis
slipping
spina bifida
congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it.
kyphosis
abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side
kyph
hump
lordosis
abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine
lord
bend backward
scoliosis
abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine
scoli
curved
craniostenosis
malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures
fibrous dysplasia
bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous (scar-like) tissue and leads to uneven growth, brittleness, and deformity
ostealgia
aka osteodynia; main pain in a bone
oste
bone
osteitis
aka ostitis; inflammation of bone
osteomalacia
aka adult rickets; abnormal softening of bones in adults and is caused by a deficiency of vitamin D, calcium, and/or phosphate
osteomyelitis
inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone
myel
bone marrow
osteonecrosis
death of bone tissue to a lack of insufficient blood supply
paget's disease
aka osteitis deformans; bone disease of unknown cause; characterized by the excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation
periostitis
inflammation of the periosteum and is often associated with shin splits
rickets
infantile osteomalacia, a deficiency disease occuring in children; characterized by defective bone growth, results from a vit. D deficiency
short stature
formerly known as dwarfism; results from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length
talipes
aka clubfood; describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus
primary bone cancer
relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone
secondary bone cancer
describes tumors that have metastasized (spread) to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs
myeloma
a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow
osteochondroma
benign bony projection covered with cartilage
osteoporosis
a marked loss of bone density and increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging
por
small opening
osteopenia
thinner than average bone density in a young person; describes the condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but is at risk for developing it
-penia
deficiency
compression fracture
aka vertebral crush fracture; occurs when the bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself. Are sometimes caused by the spontaneous collapse of weakened vertebrae or injury
colles' fracture
aka fractured wrist; occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands
osteoporotic hip fracture
aka broken hip; usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously of as the result in the loss of function, mobility, independence, or death
fracture
aka broken bone
closed fracture
aka simple fracture or a complete fracture; bone is broken but there is no open wound in the skin
open fracture
aka compound fracture; bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin
comminuted fracture
bone is splintered or crushed
greenstick fracture
bone is bent and only partially broken; occurs primarily in children
oblique fracture
occurs at an angle across the bone
pathologic fracture
occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain, this is due to bones being weakened by osteoporosis or to a disease process such as cancer
spiral fracture
a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart; results of a sever twisting motion such as in a sports injury
stress fracture
overuse injury, is a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic, excessive impact
transverse fracture
occurs straight across the bone
fat embolus
can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood
crepitation
aka crepitus; is the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together; also describes the crackling sound heard in lungs
callus
forms as a bulging deposit around the area of the break. this tissue eventually becomes bone
radiograph
aka x-ray; is the use of x-radiation to visualize bone fractures and other abnormalities
arthroscopy
visual examination of the internal structure of a joint
bone marrow biopsy
diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood test
magnetic resonance imaging
used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints
bone density testing
used to determine losses or changes in bone density
ultrasonic bone density testing
a screening test for osteoporosis or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass. sound waves are used to take measurements of the calcenaeous bone
dual x-ray absorptiometry
low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density. This test produces more accurate results than ultrasonic bone density testing
bone marrow transplant
used to treat certain types of cancers
allogenic bone marrow transplant
uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling
allogenic
means originating within another
autologous bone marrow transplant
the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleansed, treated, and then stored before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed
autologous
originating within an individual
orthotic
mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is especially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function
prosthesis
a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been ampulated
arthrodesis
aka surgical ankylosis; surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint
-desis
surgical fixation of bone or joint
arthrolysis
surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint
-lysis
loosening or setting free
arthroscopic surgery
a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint
bursectomy
surgical removal of a bursa
chondroplasty
surgical repair of damaged cartilage
synovectomy
surgical removal of a synovial membrane from a joint
arthroplasty
surgical repair of a damaged joint
total knee placement
all of the parts of the knee were replaced
partial knee replacement
only part of the knee is replaced
total hip replacement
aka total hip arthroplasty; performed to restore a damaged hip to full function
bone-conserving hip resurfacing
an alternative to removing the head of the femur and a metal cap is placed over the head of the femure
revision surgery
replacement of a worn or failed implant
percutaneous diskectomy
performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk. A thin tube is inserted through the skin of the back to suction out the ruptured disk or to vaporize it with a laser
percutaneous vertebroplasty
performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures; it is minimally invasive and bone cement is injected to stabilize compression fractures within the spinal cord
laminectomy
surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior protion, of a vertebra
spinal fusion
a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two or more vertebrae
craniectomy
surgical removal of a portion of the skull; used to treat craniostenosis or to relieve increased intracranial pressure due to swelling of the brain
craniotomy
surgical incision or opening into the skull; performed to gain access to the brain to remove a tumor, to relieve intracranial pressure, or to obtain access for other surgical procedures
cranioplasty
surgical repair of the skull
osteoclasis
surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity
-clasis
break
ostectomy
surgical removal of bone
osteoplasty
surgical repair of a bone or bones
osteorrhaphy
surgical suturing or wiring together of bones
osteotomy
surgical incision or sectioning of a bone
periosteotomy
incision through the periosteum to the bone
closed reduction
aka manipulation; is the attempted realignmnet of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation
immobilization
aka stabilization; act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast
traction
a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to return the bone or joint to normal alignment
external fixation
fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissues and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing
internal fixation
aka open reduction internal fixation; a fracture treatment which a plate or pins are placed directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place.