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BIO MIDTERM REVIEW
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Terms in this set (58)
Cell fragments aiding in blood clotting
Red Blood Cells
Cells that contain hemoglobin. Used to carry oxygen through circulation in human body. Expels it's cytoplasmic content early on during it's life time. Most common in human blood.
White Blood Cells
Cells that are meant to find and destroy materials that are foreign to the body. There are lots of types of WBC, from those that phagocytose bacteria to those that produce antibodies. Least common in human blood.
A chemical used by RBC to carry oxygen/carbon dioxide.
Study of living things.
A process in which organisms obtain energy sources and use it. For humans, the digestive system is the nutrition process.
A process by which ingested materials are distributed within an organism. For cells, process in which materials pass in and out the semipermeable membrane is transport. For Humans, the circulatory system is the equivalent.
The process in which food material(glucose) goes through a chemical reaction to release energy for organisms.
The removal of organism's wastes.
A process in which organisms combine small materials to produce larger ones. The small materials are called monomers, and large materials polymers.
The coordinated response of an organism to a changing environment in order to maintain homeostasis. For instance, humans will beat their heart faster during cardiovascular activities
The ability of living things to produce more if their own kind. The process is essential to species but not to the individual organisms.
The stability of the internal environment inside an organism.
Kingdom including cells with a primitive cell structure that lack a nuclear membrane. Most organism relies on other organisms or the environment for food.
Kingdom with organism that just does not fit in any other categories. Usually unicellular. They may be animal like or plant like.
Kingdom with multicellular photosynthetic organisms. Usually can provide for themself if provided with sunlight.
Kingdom consisting of multicellular organisms that ingest other organisms as food to take in energy. They may eat plants or other animals.
The division of biology that deals with the classification and naming of living and extinct organisms.
A structure only seen in plant cells. Envelops the cell membrane to maintain the rigid structure of the cell.
A structure seen in all organisms. Separates the inside and outside of the cell. Lets only some materials come in and out of the cell.
The fluid inside of a cell. Contains all of the essential structures for the cell.
A cell structure located in the center of eukaryotic cells. It's purpose lies in storing DNA and releasing mRNAs to produce proteins.
A structure found in organism living in hypotonic enviroments. Pumps out water that is diffusing into the vacuole to prevent the cell from bursting.
A molecule that is composed of two different components-the hydrophilic head and the hydrophobic tail. The hydrophobic tail is made of glycerol, while the head is made of fatty acids. The molecules are known to stick together to form a circular structure when exposed to water, with the hydrophobic tails facing inside toward eachother and the heads facing outwards. This is due to the tendency of the tails to get the least surface exposed to water and the head's tendency to be exposed to as much water as possible.
Monomer of protein. Acids that composes of roughly three region, the amino group, carboyl group, and the R group. These acids can be chained together to form proteins by conducting dehydration synthesis. The Hydrogen on the amino group of one amino acid, or the N terminal, can combine with OH of the carboxyl group of another amino acid(C terminal) to produce water. The open bonds of the two aminoacids will then be combined together. The R group of amino acids are all different.
A process in which organisms take in food into their body or cytoplasm. For example, a slime forming a food vacuole through phagocytosis around a paramecium is a type of ingestion.
A process in which organisms break up the food they taken in into their body or cytoplasm into usable materials. For example, a human breaking up proteins in meat into aminoacids is a type of digestion.
A process in which materials that were not digested are ejected out of the body. For example, an hydra will expel their digested material out of their mouth/anus to make space to put in another batch of food.
process which simple unicellular organisms use to take in solid food into their systems. The cell's membrane expand around a prey, and the membranes trap the prey between the membranes. Then, a food vacuole is slowly formed around the prey as the membrane closes in onto the prey. The food vacuole will merge with lysosomes, another vacuole filed with digestive enzymes, to slowly digest the food.
Intra cellular digestion
Digestion that is done singlehandedly by a single cell inside of the cell. The cell alone will use the digested materials.
Extra cellular digestion
Digestion that is done through the work of multiple cells outside of the cells. the cells share their digested materials.
The first active multicellular predators. These organisms developed specialized cells to obtain food and to digest it. For example, the Hydra has seeral different cells to get food. The waving cnidocytes(tentacles) has neurotoxins that paralyze preys and strong muscle that lifts up food into the center of their mouth. As the food falls down the mouth, it enters the Gastro Vascular Cavity, an open area inside of the hydra that digest foods. Inside, gland cells pump out enzymes to digest the food, and the flagellum pumps out the water out of the GV cavity. The muscle cells tenderizes and breaks up the digested food further, and the usable materials such as aminoacids are absorbed by the cells through diffusion and are transported through out the organism through circulation, The undigested material exits through the anus(mouth).
Also known as flatworms, these organisms evolved the Cnidarians' digestion method. They shaped their GV cavity with interweaving dents to increase the surface area, and thereby allow more nutrients from digested material to enter their system through diffusions.
Also known as Earth worms, they improved on the flatwarm's digestion method by adding teeths, and two pores in their digestion. By adding teeths, carbohydrate digestion can start early on at the digestive track when used with salivary glands, a gland that secretes saliva to wet the food. Also, the two pores allowed more food to be taken in by a given organism at a time, and further made their system efficent.
Insects such as the grasshopper are known to develop the next stages in digestive system evolution. Insects must sometime make do in dry enviroments. This lead to the development of the rectum, which absorbs back the water used during digestion into the body released by the gastic ceaca.
Certain conditions of the enviroment known to strive up certain conditions in organisms are called stimulus. After the afferent(into the CNS) sensory nerves notices such stimui, such as smells or sights of food, the nerves contact the central nervous system such as the brain and the spinal cord. The efferent motar nerves then release instruction from the CNS into the muscles and Glands to act in certain ways. Conditionary reflex uses this trait of the body, and organisms can be trained to act a certain way in a certain occaision.
The purpose of the mouth is to moist food into Bolus, and to start digesting carbohydrates by using exocrine glands close to the mouth to squirt out amylase, a type of enzyme.
An organ found after the mouth and before the esophagas. It regulates the direction in which food moves to so that the food will go down the esophagas, instead of going to respiratory organs.
tube of smooth muscles that contracts it's muscles to send food down into the stomach. Contraction occurs naturally, so organisms do not need to conciously think to swollow food.
An organ consisting of layers of muscles in different orientations. The borus is broken down through mechanical digestion when the muscles juggle the borus. The HCl released from the stomach triggers chemical digestion by breaking up and revealing the active cite of the protein pepsinogen, which will then turn into pepsin and digest the material. The stomach lining consists of a very powerful base, and it counteracts the HCl to stop the stomach from sustaining damage.
An organ made of tubes of muscles. Foods are slowly drifted along the tube, as they are absorbed by the intestine. Pancreatic juices play a part in absorbtion. The proteases breaks down the proteins, the pancreatic amylase the carbohydrates, the lipase the liids.
An organ also made of tubes of muscles. It's purpose lies in extracting water out of digested materials. Villis, or dents in the tube lining, allow materials to be effectively diffused into the body. It uses active transport to take in all the things it can.
A organ that stores bile and bile salt. These materials stored in the bladdar are released into the first parts of the small intestine, where it's purpose lies in neutrelizing the acidic pH from the HCl in the stomach. Bile and bile salt are made in the liver, and are stored in this bladdar-the bladdar itself does not produce bile.
A system that is used in organisms to transmit informations to and from the brain. The system delivers information at a very fast rate. However, if the information transmitted is a instruction to organs from the brain, the instruction will be conducted only for a short time.
A system that is used in organisms to transmit informations around the body through the blood circulatory system. The information can be released by any organs in the body to any specific organ through a chemical called hormone. Though it takes some time to deliver the message, the information will stay for a long time in the blood system.
Chemical with positively charged hydrogen ions in it.
Chemicals with negatively charged hydrogen and oxygen group attached.
Protons. Formed when water breaks up into simpler chemicals and takes one of the hydrogen atom's electron.
Hydrogen and oxygen group
Negatively charged group. Formed when water breaks up into simpler chemicals. The group takes the other hydrogen's only electron to gain a charge.
A process in which hydrogen and oxygen group combines with hydrogen ions to produce water.
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14. 7 is neutral, and is neither acidic or basic. Stands for p(otential) of (H)ydrogen
Positively charged particles. Usually found inside the nucleus of an atom. Has an atomic weight of 1
the particles of the nucleus that have no charge. Usually found inside the nucleus of atoms. Has an atomic weight of one.
negatively charged particles found orbiting the nucleus. Does not have any weight.
Shells of atoms
Represents the orbit in which electrons go around a nucleus. The first can have two electrons, the second can have eight electrons in the orbit. Atoms are stable when their shells are complete, and the maximum number of electrons are in all of their orbits.
a chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule. Example is a water molecule.
a chemical bond in which one atom loses an electron to form a positive ion and the other atom gains to electron to form a negative ion
macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Made of monomers called aminoacids.
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