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162 terms

Essentials of Medical Language Allan, Lockyer Ch 1-4

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supine
lying on back with palms up
prone
lying on belly with palms facing floor
superior
situated above, head
inferior
situated below, tail
proximal
vertically situated nearest to center of the body
distal
vertically situated away from the center of the body
medial
toward the middle of the body
lateral
situated at the side of a structure
anterior
situated in front, belly
posterior
situated in back
transverse, horizontal, cross section
divides the body into superior and inferior portions
sagittal
divides the body into left and right portions
frontal, coronal
divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
cyto-
cell
-logy
study of
-logist
specialist, one who studies
fertiliz-
to make fruitful
-ation
process
histo-
tissue
connective tissue
bind, support, protect, fill spaces and store fat
epithelial tissue
protect, secrete, absorb, and excrete
muscle tissue
control movement, stabilize and allow movement of joints
nervous tissue
transmit impulses for coordination, sensory reception, and motor actions
cartilage
nonvascular, firm connective tissue found mostly in joints; has a rubbery, flexible substance.
ligament
strips or bands of tough connective tissue that connect two structures
tendon
fibrous band that attaches muscle to the bone
homeo-
the same
-stasis
standstill, control
pneumon-
lung or air
-thorax
chest
-ary
pertaining to
-suffix
ending
prefix-
beginning
-ia
a condition of
-ation
a process of
pneumonia
a condition of the lung
respiration
a process of breathing
pre-
before
post-
after
-mature
normal pregnancy
uni-
one
bi-
two (both)
peri-
around
epi-
above
hypo-
below
micro-
small
macro-
large
myo-
muscle
cardial
heart
-al
pertaining to
prostrate
physically weak, exhausted lie flat on ground
prostate
base of the male bladder
mucous
mucous membrane
mucus
slime, snot
ileum
segment of small intestine
ilium
bone in pelvis
-a;-is
singular ending (diagnosis;allixa)
-ae;-es
plural ending (diagnoses;allixae)
hypotension
low blood pressure
hypertension
high blood pressure
-tens-
pressure (root)
-ion
action; condition
vaso-
blood vessel
-dila-
open
-constrict-
narrow; close up
-dermis
skin
adip-
fat;
-ose
full of
-al
pertaining to
-ic
pertaining to
-ous
pertaining to
Stratum corneum
dead cells
kerat-
hard protein
-in
substance
melan-
black pigment
-ar
pertaining to
sub-
below
intra-
within
trans-
across; through
an-
without
-alges-
sensation of pain
-ic
pertaining to
-itis
inflammation
pruritus
itching
excoriate
to scratch
excoriation
scratch marks
-ant
bad
malign-
harmful
-oma
tumor; mass
pedis
fungal infection of the foot
capitis
fungal infection of the head
corporis
ring worm of the skin and hand
cruris
fungal infection of the groin
versicolor
fungal infection of the trunk of body
albicans
white
myc-
fungus
myo-
muscle
onychomyc-
nail fungus
-osis, -ia
condition
par-
alongside
-onych-
nail
edema
swelling
auto-
your own skin
-graft
transplant
homo-;allo-
someone elses skin
xeno-;hetero-
different species (pig)
abdomino-
stomach
-plasty
surgical repair
blepharo-
eyelid
mammo-
breast
rhino-
nose
orthopedic surgeons (orthopedists)
medical doctors (MDs)
osteopathic physicians (DO)
earned a doctor of osteopathy degree
chiropractors (DC)
doctoral degree
physical therapists (PT)
doctoral degree
podiatrists (DPM)
doctor of podiatric medicine
osteoporo-
bone; opening
-sis
condition
osteoporosis
condition in which the bones become more porous, brittle, and fragile and more likely to fracture
-penia
deficient
osteopenia
decreased calcification of bone; low bone density
BMD
bone mineral density
DEXA
dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (a measuring device that uses low energy radiation beams)
-malacia
abnormal softness
Osteomalacia
soft, flexible bones lacking in calcium (rickets)
Osteogen-;sarc-
bone creation; flesh
Osteogenic sarcoma
malignant tumor originating in bone-producing cells
mye-
bone marrow
Osteomyelitis
inflammation of bone tissue
closed (simple)
bone is broken but skin is not
open (compound)
bone edge breaks through skin
complete
bone is broken in atleast 2 fragments
incomplete
fracture does not extend across the bone
comminuted
bone is broken into pieces
pathologic
occurs at a site already weakened by a disease process
external fixation
casts, splints, traction
internal fixation
wires, plates, rods, screws, and pins
nonunion
fracture fails to heal
malunion
fracture fails to heal correctly
cervic-
neck
thorac-
chest
sacr-
sacrum
intervertebral discs
between; vertebra; pertaining to
*kyphosis
bent, humpback; condition = normal posterior curve of the spine that can be exaggerated in disease, usually thoracic region
*scoliosis - crooked
abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column, usually thoracic region
*lordosis
curve, swayback = normal forward curve of the lumbar spine that can be exaggerated in disease
frontal
front
parietal-wall
the two bones forming the sidewalls and roof of the cranium
occipital
back of the head/skull
temporal-time
forms part of the base and sides of the skull
spheniod-wedge-resemble
wedge-shaped bone at the base of the skull
ethmoid-sieve
bone that forms the back of the nose and encloses air cells
meta-
after
phalanges
bone of fingers and toes
osteoarthritis (OA)
- bone; joint; inflammation = chronic inflammatory disease of joints
tibia
larger bone of the leg
fibula
smaller bone of the leg
patella
knee cap
femur
thigh bone
Podiatrist
treat and diagnose disorders and injuries of the foot and toenails
tarsal
ankle
metatarsals
after; = the five bones between the tarsus and the toes