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13 terms

Chapter 8 Section 1

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Chromosomes
Rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins contained in the nucleus
Histones
proteins which help maintain the shape of the chromosomes and aid in the tight packing of DNA
Chromatin
less tightly coiled DNA- protein complex
Chromatid
each half of a chromosome; formed as the DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
Centromere
the central point where two chromatids attach, important for movement of chromosomes
Chromosome Numbers
each species has a specific number of chromosomes in each cell. Some species have the same number
Sex chromosomes
chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism (X/Y)
Autosomes
all other chromosomes in an organism
Homologous Chromosomes
chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, same structure, and pair during meiosis
Human Chromosomes
consist of 46 chromosomes exist as 22 homologous pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes (XY in males; XX in females)
Karyotype
a graphical display that shows an individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs
Diploid
cells having two sets of chromosomes 2n
ex) all human cells except reproductive cells
Haploid
cells that contain only one set of chromosomes 1n, have only one autosome of each homologous pair and only one sex chromosome (X or Y) Ex. Sperm/Egg cells