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Rod-shaped structures made of DNA and proteins contained in the nucleus


proteins which help maintain the shape of the chromosomes and aid in the tight packing of DNA


less tightly coiled DNA- protein complex


each half of a chromosome; formed as the DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division


the central point where two chromatids attach, important for movement of chromosomes

Chromosome Numbers

each species has a specific number of chromosomes in each cell. Some species have the same number

Sex chromosomes

chromosomes that determine the sex of an organism (X/Y)


all other chromosomes in an organism

Homologous Chromosomes

chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, same structure, and pair during meiosis

Human Chromosomes

consist of 46 chromosomes exist as 22 homologous pairs of autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes (XY in males; XX in females)


a graphical display that shows an individual's chromosomes arranged in homologous pairs


cells having two sets of chromosomes 2n
ex) all human cells except reproductive cells


cells that contain only one set of chromosomes 1n, have only one autosome of each homologous pair and only one sex chromosome (X or Y) Ex. Sperm/Egg cells

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