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Terms in this set (131)
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
an often fatal infection caused by a virus (HIV) that destroys the immune system. It is spread by intimate sexual activity (the exchange of body fluids) or contaminated blood
dysentery caused by infestation of amoebae, one-celled organisms
showing no symptoms
asymptomatic HIV infection
a stage of HIV infection in which infected individuals show no visible symptoms
small, single celled organisms that lack a nuclear membrane, but have all the genetic material (RNA and DNA) to reproduce themselves
a type of vaginitis caused by the interaction of several vaginal bacteria (particularly Gardnerella vaginalis)
appearance signifies the beginning of the primary stage of syphilis; ugly, ulcer-like (raised edges with a crater) sore
a sexually transmitted infection, caused by Hemophilus ducreyi bacterium, which is characterized by small, painful bumps
a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium, which lives on mucous membranes
a bacterial infection of the bladder (often caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli)
herpes infection in the genital region. It can be caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2.
genital (venereal) warts
warts in the genital and anal regions caused by HPV. The warts are cauliflower-like growths
a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium (often referred to as "the gonococcus"), which lives on mucous membranes
a rare (in the U.S.) sexually transmitted infection that is characterized by ulceration of tissue
highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection
Liver infection caused by virus. Spread by direct or indirect contact with contaminated feces
Liver infection caused by virus. transmitted by infected blood or body fluids, with about 50% of the cases contracted during sex
Liver infection caused by virus. Spread mainly by contaminated blood, but may possibly be spread during sexual intercourse in some cases
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
a virus that kills CD4+ cells, eventually resulting in AIDS
Human papillomaviruses (HPV)
viruses that cause abnormal growths in epithelial cells. There are over 100 types. A few (types 6 and 11) cause genital warts, while others can lead to cancer of the cervix
the bodily mechanisms involved in the production of antibodies in response to bacteria, viruses, and cancerous cells
lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
a sexually transmitted infection common in tropical countries that is caused by chlamydia. If left untreated, it causes swelling of the inguinal lymph nodes, penis, labia, or clitoris
a sexually transmitted virus with symptoms that look like small pimples filled with kernels of corn
sometimes called candidiasis. A type of vaginitis caused by the overgrowth of a microorganism that is normally found in the vagina. Moniliasis is a fungus or yeast infection and usually is sexually related, rather than a sexually transmitted infection
a bacterium that was first discovered in the 1980s; frequently found in men with urethritis and women with urethritis and and/or cervicitis who do not have gonorrhea or chlamydia; it is an STI
nongonococcal (nonspecific) urethritis (NGU)
any inflammation of the urethra that is not caused by the Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonococcus) bacterium
diseases that take advantage of the weakened immune systems from AIDS
a herpes infection in or around the mouth. It can be caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
a bacterially caused inflammation of a woman's reproductive tract, particularly the Fallopian tubes, that can result in sterility. The most common (though not the only) cause is untreated gonorrhea and/or chlamydia
small worms that live in the large intestine and are generally transmitted through non-sexual contact with the worms' eggs, but which can be transmitted sexually by manual or oral contact with the anus of an infected person
primary HIV infection
the first few weeks of HIV infection, during which HIV reached enormous levels in the blood and 50% to 75% of infected individuals experience flu-like symtpoms
an infestation of the parasite Phthirus pubis, which attach themselves to pubic hair and feed on blood (also known as crabs)
sexual behaviors involving a low risk of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. These include consistent use of condoms and/or abstaining from sex until one enters a long-term monogamous relationship
a contagious infection of parasitic mites that burrow under the skin to lay their eggs
sexually related diseases
diseases of the reproductive system or genitals that are not contracted through sexual activity. Often involve overgrowths of bacteria, yeasts, viruses, or fungal organisms that are not found naturally in sexual and reproductive organs
sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
infections that can be, but are not necessarily always, transmitted by sexual contact
an infection that can be contracted during sexual activity by exposure to feces containing the Shigella bacterium
symptomatic HIV infection
the early symptoms of HIV infection, which eventually leads to AIDS
a sexually transmitted infection caused by the Treponema pallidum bacterium (spirochete), which can also pass directly through any cut or scrape into the bloodstream
a type of vaginitis caused by a one-celled protozoan that is usually transmitted during sexual intercourse
a protein shell around a nucleic acid core. Viruses have either RNA or DNA, but not both, and thus cannot reproduce themselves. They invade host cells that provide the material to manufacture new virus particles
One in _______ Americans will have at least one STI sometime in their life.
The behavior is merely the mode of transmission for ________________, _________________, and/or ________________, that must be present for the infections to be transmitted.
The three most common STIs (in the U.S.) caused by a bacteria are _______________, _____________, and _____________.
In the early stages of ______________ and ______________ most women and many men show no symptoms.
If they are not treated, the bacteria that cause these two STIs can invade the upper reproductive tract and cause prostatitis and epididymitis in men and ___________________ in women.
pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
____________ passes through several stages, and if left untreated can cause organ damage and death.
These types of STIs can be cured with _____________.
STIs caused by viruses are generally incurable because the viruses live inside normal body cells. Herpes has been around since biblical times and is spread by direct ______________- to- _____________ contact.
After the primary attack, many herpes sufferers experience ______________ attacks when the virus replicates and sheds.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the ______________ that can be caused by contact with contaminated ______________ (hepatitis A) or infected ________________(hepatitis B).
blood and other body fluids
Warts in the genital and anal areas are caused by a few types of the ___________ virus.
AIDS is caused by the ___________________.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
HIV invades and destroys _______________ (also called helper T) cells, white blood cells that are a critical part of the body's _______________ system.
People with AIDS eventually die from a variety of ________________ infections.
Without medication, about half of all individuals who become infected with HIV will develop AIDS within ________ years.
HIV originated in Africa from simian (non-human primate) immunodeficiency viruses. It is transmitted by _____________ and exposure to infected ________________.
intimate sexual activity
It is not spread by _____________.
Worldwide, most cases are spread by sexual activity between __________________.
men and women
Pubic lice and scabies are not really infections, but _________________.
infestations of parasites
There are three general types of vaginal infections. ________________ is caused by a one-celled protozoan that is transmitted during sexual intercourse.
_____________ vaginitis is a fungus or yeast infection that is very common in women.
______________ is caused by several vaginal bacteria that replace normal hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria.
True or False starts next
People who have had a sexually transmitted infection in the past are immune to getting that type of STI again.
Cold sores and fever blisters are symptoms of herpes.
Homosexuality is one of the causes of AIDS.
If left untreated, gonorrhea can turn into syphilis.
Yeast infections (monilial vaginitis) can usually be prevented by using feminine hygiene products.
A person with a cold sore on the mouth can give his or her partner genital herpes during oral-genital sex.
Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis are often contracted by people who use toilet seats previously used by infected individuals.
Chlamydia is more common than gonorrhea.
It is possible to contract HIV by hugging, touching, or being close to an infected person.
The large majority of women do not show any symptoms in the early stages of gonorrhea or chlamydia.
Herpes can sometimes be cured with antibiotics.
A person can have only one type of STI at a time.
HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is sometimes spread by mosquitoes.
Pelvic inflammatory disease can be caused by infections that were not contracted during sex.
Condoms are generally ineffective against HIV.
The eggs of pubic lice can survive for days on towels or sheets.
A person who has no symptoms does not have to worry about having gonorrhea, chlamydia, or syphilis.
Only women can contract trichomoniasis and monilial infections.
Herpes can be cured with a drug called acyclovir.
The HPV that cause cervical cancer are the same as those that cause genital warts.
Regular douching decreases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Recurrent herpes attacks are generally more painful, and last longer, than the first (primary) attack.
Herpes is the leading infectious cause of blindness in the U.S.
Hepatitis A is most often spread by nonsexual means.
Worldwide, most cases of HIV infection (infection with the virus that causes AIDS) are contracted by sex between heterosexuals.
Generally speaking, people who get AIDS this year are those who became infected with HIV 5 to 15 years ago.
To minimize their chance of a vaginal infection, women should wear panties made of synthetic fabrics.
People who get HIV are extremely contagious in the first 60 days after exposure.
HIV/AIDS can be considered cured when drug therapy reduces HIV to non-detectable levels.
painful, crater-like sores
itchless, painless rash all over the body
pus-like discharge and/or burning during urination
intense itching caused by grayish, six-legged parasites
thick, white, curdy vaginal discharge and intense itching
moniliasis (yeast infection)
loss of appetite, fatigue, slow recovery from colds and flus, continual yeast infections, purple blotches on skin, pneumonia
HIV infection (AIDS)
venereal warts (human papillomavirus infection)
severe abdominal pain and fever
scaling skin caused by pearly mites
large, ulcer-like, painless sore
copious, foamy, whitish-green vaginal discharge with foul odor
wart-like growths that look like small pimples filled with kernels of corn
thin, clear discharge and irritation of the urethra
jaundiced or yellow tinge of skin and eyes
large ulcers (gummas) in the skin and bones; damage to the heart and nervous system
inflammation of the bladder
Trichomoniasis, pubic lice, and scabies are all caused by ________________.
In women, untreated gonorrhea or chlamydia can lead to _______________.
pelvic inflammatory disease
A woman who has had _______________ is at high risk of getting cancer of the cervix.
human papillomavirus infection
The sexually transmitted infection that impairs the immune system is called _____________.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Trichomoniasis, moniliasis, and bacterial vaginosis are all ______________.
types of vaginal infections
A viral liver infection that can be sexually transmitted is ________________.
hepatitis A and B
Two serious possible consequences of PID are __________________ and ______________.
Three sexually transmitted infections that can be passed from an infected pregnant female to the fetus are ______________, _________________, and ________________.
syphilis, HIV, hepatitis
_______________ is the most common thing that brings on recurrent herpes attacks.
The bacteria that cause gonorrhea and chlamydia live on __________________.
Any inflammation of the urethra not caused by the gonococcus is called _______________.
nongonococcal (or nonspecific) urethritis
Antibiotics commonly lead to _____________ infections.
___________ live in the large intestine and can be transmitted during sex, but are generally acquired by children through non-sexual means.
Many people diagnosed with gonorrhea are also found to have _____________.
HIV attacks immune system cells called ______________.
People with HIV are most contagious (when) ____________.
during the first 60 days and late in the infection (AIDS)
The most common AIDS test tests for _______________.
Gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, herpes, HPV infection, HIV infection, trichomoniasis - for which of these infections do women usually not have visible symptoms in the initial stage? _________________
gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis (the chancre is often internal), HPV infection, HIV infection
For which of the infections listed in the previous question do men usually not show symptoms in the initial stage? ________________
HPV infection, HIV infection, trichomoniasis
The best ways to avoid sexually transmitted infections are ____________ and ____________.
to always use condoms, to abstain from sex until you are in a long-term monogamous relationship
The most common sexually transmitted infection in the U.S. is ______________.
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