Chapter 5 History Test Vocab
Terms in this set (98)
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History. She supported the arts, increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England
Queen Elizabeth I
This king of Scotland also became king of England in 1603. He struggled with Parliament over money.
King James I
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Document prepared by Parliament and signed/ignored by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
Petition of Right
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king
English Civil War
supporters of government by a monarch; used as a name for supporters of England's King Charles I
In the English Civil War (1642-1647), these were the troops loyal to Charles II. Their opponents were the Roundheads, loyal to Parliament and Oliver Cromwell.
A group consisting of puritans, country land owners, and town based manufacturers, led by Oliver Cromwell; fought against the Cavaliers during the English civil war
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Proclaimed when Charles I was beheaded in 1649. Theoretically, legislative power rested in the surviving members of the parliament and executive power was lodged in a council state.
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
This was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
A law giving prisoners the right to obtain a document allowing for him or her to be tried before a judge.
The _____ were originally colonists supporting independence. In the mid 1830s, the Whig Party opposed Jackson's strong-armed leadership style and policies. The _____ promoted protective tariffs, federal funding for internal improvements, and other measures that strengthened the central government. Reaching its height of popularity in the 1830s, the _____ disappeared from the national political scene by the 1850s.
A member of a British political party, founded in 1689, that was the opposition party to the Whigs and has been known as the Conservative Party since about 1832
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
Dutch royalty who were "invited" by the English to take over England during what was called "The Glorious Revolution"
William and Mary of Orange
Following the English Civil War, this event involve the British Parliament once again overthrowing their monarch in 1688-1689. James II was expelled and William and Mary were made king and queen. Marks the point at which Parliament made the monarchy powerless, gave themselves all the power, and wrote a Bill of Rights.
A form of government in which the king retains his position as head of state, while the authority to tax and make new laws resides in an elected body.
Drawn up by Parliament and presented to King William II and Queen Mary, it listed certain rights of the British people. It also limited the king's powers in taxing and prohibitted the maintenance of a standing army in peacetime.
Bill of RIghts (1689)
A group of advisers or ministers chosen by the head of a country
the person who is head of state (in several countries)
Also known as Ivan the Terrible, after the death of his wife, he killed many nobles, accusing them of poisoning his wife.
The landowning nobles of Russia.
Meaning "Caesar" in Russian, referring to the ruler of Russia.
A family of rulers ruling over 300 years in Russia.
Length of time during the rule of Ivan the Terrible which Ivan won great victories, added territory to Russia, established a set of laws, and ruled justly.
Length of time during the rule of Ivan the Terrible, (after his wife's death) where he started killing off nobles, accusing them of poisoning his wife.
Time after Ivan the Terrible's death, with his son proving to be a weak king, many people fought for the throne.
Time of Troubles
Man whom the Russians chose to be czar after the Time of Troubles.
One of the Romanov rulers, restored order and did great things for Russia.
Czar Peter I
The branch of Christianity that the Russians had adopted.
A journey underwent by Peter the Great in an attempt to learn Europe's culture and westernize Russia.
The process of making Russia similar to western Europe.
A group that Peter the Great hired to run the church under his orders.
An area where Peter the Great could easily sail to Western and Central Europe.
"window on Europe"
The "window on Europe" that Peter the Great had wanted, and had fought Sweden for it. It was a swampy area, but Peter built a magnificent city on top of the swamp.
An alliance of German Protestant princes fighting together against the Catholic League in the Thirty Years' War
An alliance of Catholic princes fighting together against the Protestant Union in the Thirty Years' War
Holy Roman Empire and king of Bohemia, led the Catholics in the Thirty Years' War
A war fought in Europe between the Catholic League and the Protestant Union.
Thirty Years' War
Swedish Protestant military leader, won a battle against the Catholic League, was killed in battle a few years later.
Treaty weakening the Hapsburgs, strengthening the French, and made the modern state system and a new way of negotiation.
Peace of Westphalia
A system recognizing Europe as a set of independent states, each with their own government.
modern state system
Family ruling much of Europe before the Thirty Years' War, fought in the Thirty Years' War and was weakened by losing territory in the Peace of Westphalia.
Hapsburgs of Austria
One of the rulers of the Hapsburgs, spent most of his reign deciding how to find a heir.
Successor of Charles VI, was promised a peaceful reign, but ended up with years of war.
The ruling family in Prussia
The landowning nobles in Prussia, given exclusive right to be officers in Frederick the Great's army.
Successor of the Great Elector, also known as Frederick the Great
King Frederick William II
Also known as King Frederick William II, successor of the Great Elector.
A city on the borders of Austria, a source of iron ore, textiles, and food.
A war fought between Austria and Prussia over Silesia.
War of the Austrian Succession
Treaty giving Prussia Silesia and ended the War of the Austrian Succession.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
state in Germany, led by Prince Frederick.
A war fought over colonies on other continents besides Europe, Britain was the main winner.
Seven Years' War
Slaughter of Huguenots attending the marriage of Catherine's daughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
One of the survivors of the St. Bartholemew's Day Massacre, where he was being wed to Catherine de Médicis' daughter.
Henry of Navarre
King of France in 1589, also known as Henry of Navarre.
Decleration of religious toleration allowing Huguenots to live in peace in France and set up their own houses of worship.
Edict of Nantes
Successor of Henry IV, a weak king, but appointed a strong minister who made up for his weaknesses.
Minister who was appointed by Louis XIII. He had been the head of the Catholic church in France.
Rulers who controlled territories including Spain, Austria, the Netherlands, and parts of the Holy Roman Empire.
The idea that nothing can ever be known for certain
Developer of the essay, wrote about how humans could never have absolute knowledge of what is true.
Michel de Montaigne
Used observations and reasoning to answer questions, creating a philosophy that influenced modern thinkers and helped to develop the scientific method.
Successor of Louis XIII, started his reign when he was only 4 years old.
Successor of Cardinal Richelieu, ended the Thirty Years' War
Government agents whose power Louis XIV increased.
Louis XIV's minister of finance, believed in mercantilism
Jean Baptiste Colbret
Site of Louis XIV's palace, center of the arts during Louis XIV's reign.
One of Louis XIV's favorite writers.
No single country or group of countries can dominate the others.
Balance of Power
Alliance containing king of England, Austrian Hapsburg emperor, kings of Sweden and Spain, and leaders of several smaller European states.
League of Augsburg
Louis XIV's grandson, promised the throne of Spain by Charles II
Philip of Anjou
England, Austria, the Dutch Republic, Portugal, and several Italian and German states tried to prevent the union of the French and Spanish thrones.
War of Spanish Succession
Treaty signed in 1714, allowing Philip to keep the throne as long as the thrones of France and Spain did not unite.
Treaty of Utrecht
A fortress controlling the entrance to the Mediterranean taken by the British from Spain.
Charles V unwillingly agreed, allowed German princes to choose the religion for their territory
peace of augsburg
inherited Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and American colonies from father
The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships.
beat Spanish armada
had massive walls and huge gates demonstrated Philips power, also reflect Philip's faith
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color
Which painter was known for his vivid royal portraits at the court of King Philip IV during Spain's golden age
book that portrayed corrupt materialistic life in Spain, birth of the modern european novel
don quixote de la mancha
wrote Don Quixote
miguel de cervantes
A general and progressive increase in prices
result of the Dutch revolt- ten southern provinces were Catholic and remained under Spanish control- form a republic and tolerate religions- becomes center of European art.
united provinces of the netherlands
Willingness to let others practice their own beliefs
greatest Dutch artist of the time
Rembrandt van Rinjin
Dutch painter renowned for his use of light and painted everyday scenes
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
Dutch East India Company
A system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God