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The study of structure.


The study of the functions of anatomical structures.

All specific functions (physiology) are...

performed by specific structures (anatomy).

The chemical or molecular level of organizaton includes

Atoms, proteins (arranged in molecules and filaments)

What are the 6 levels of body organization?

Chemical/molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.

These organs are part of the Integumentary system

skin, hair, sweat glands, and nails

These organs are part of the Skeletal system

bones, cartilage, associated ligaments, bone marrow

These organs are part of the Muscular system

skeletal muscles and associated tendons

These organs are part of the nervous system

brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs

These organs are part of the Endocrine system

pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues in other systems

These organs are part of the Cardiovascular system

hear, blood, blood vessels

These organs are part of the Lymphatic system

spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils

These organs are part of the respiratory system

nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli

These organs are part of the Digestive system

Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas

These organs are part of the Urinary system

kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

These organs are part of the Male reproductive system

testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum

These organs are part of the Female reproductive system

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands

3 functions of the integumentary system

protect against environment,
regulate body temperature,
provide sensory info

3 functions of the skeletal system

support and protect other tissues,
store calcium and other minerals,
forms blood cells

3 functions of the muscular system

provide movement,
provide protection and support for other tissues,
generate heat to maintain body temperature

3 functions of the nervous system

direct immediate responses to stimuli,
coordinate activities of other organ systems,
provide and interpret sensory info

3 functions of the endocrine system

direct long-term changes in activities of other organ systems,
adjust metabolic activity and energy used by the body,
controls structural and functional changes during development

2 functions of the cardiovascular system

distribute blood, water, dissolved materials,
distribute heat

2 functions of the lymphatic system

defend against infection and disease,
return tissue fluids to the bloodstream

4 functions of the respiratory system

deliver air to the alveoli,
transfer oxygen to the bloodstream,
remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream,
produce sounds for communication

4 functions of the digestive system

process and digest food,
absorb and conserve water,
absorb nutrients,
store energy reserves

4 functions of the urinary system

excrete waste from the blood,
control water balance,
store urine prior to elimination,
regulate blood ion concentration and pH

2 functions of the male reproductive system

produce sperm, suspending fluids, and hormones,
sexual intercourse

4 functions of the female reproductive system

produce oocytes, and hormones,
support a developing embryo until delivery,
provide milk to a newborn,
sexual intercourse


all systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment, or maintain a 'set point'

Goldilocks principle

a way of describing how everything must be 'just right' in homeostasis

2 mechanisms of Homeostatic regulation

autoregulation and extrinsic regulation


Also known as intrinsic regulation.
An automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to environmental change.

Extrinsic Regulation:

Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems and used to maintain homeostasis

the two major control systems of the body

the nervous and endocrine systems

which system of control is faster, the nervous or the endocrine system?

nervous stem

the 3 parts of homeostasis regulation

1) receptor
2) control center
3) effector


The part of homeostasis regulation that receives/senses the stimulus

Control center

The part of homeostasis regulation that processes the information, and sends a response message.


The part of homeostasis regulation that carries out the message and causes a change.

two methods used by an effector to maintain homeostasis

positive feedback, or negative feedback

negative feedback

the effector moves a parameter in the opposite direction from the stimulus
It maintains the normal range

Body temperature regulation is an example of what kind of feedback?

negative feedback

Positive feedback

The effector moves a parameter in the same direction as the stimulus
The normal range is lost

Blood clotting is an example of what kind of feedback?

positive feedback

What does it mean that homeostasis involves a dynamic equilibirum?

Dynamic= in motion
that it is continually adapting and changing to maintain balance

systems integration

the idea that all systems work together to maintain homeostasis

What organ systems are involved in maintaining body temperature?

integumentary, muscular, cardiovascular, and nervous

What organ systems are involved in maintaining body fluid composition?

digestive, cardiovascular, urinary, skeletal, respiratory, and lymphatic

What organ systems are involved in maintaining body fluid volume?

urinary, digestive, integumentary, cardiovascular, lymphatic

What organ systems are involved in maintaining waste product concentration

urinary, digestive, cardiovascular

What organ systems are involved in maintaining blood pressure?

cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine

superficial anatomy

locating structures on or near the body surface

anatomical position

hands at sides, palms facing forward


lying down, face up


lying down, face down

anatomical landmarks

refers to palpable structures

anatomical regions

specific location or areas


to the rear, to the back

posterior or dorsal

the back surface, towards the back


belly side


towards the tail

cranial or cephalic

towards the head


towards the middle


towards the outside


close to a base


farther from a base


close to the surface


far from the surface






a 3 dimensional axis


a slice taken parallel to a plane

transverse or horizontal plane

a plane perpendicular to the long axis that divides the body into inferior and superior portions

Sagittal plane

a plane parallel to the long axis that divides the body into equal right and left portions


a plane parallel to the long axis that divides the body into unequal right and left portions

frontal or coronal plane

separates the body into anterior and posterior portions

2 functions of body cavities

1) protect organs from shock
2) permit changes in size and shape of internal organs

ventral body cavity

also called the coelom
made up of thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and divided by the diaphragm

serous membranes

tissue formed of 2 layers with fluid inbetween.
They line the body cavities (parietal layer) and cover organs (visceral layer).

Thoracic cavity

superior to the diaphragm,
made up of the mediastinum, right pleural and left pleural cavities

abdominopelvic cavity

inferior to the diaphragm to the pelvic bones,
made up of the abdominal and pelvic cavities

pleural cavities

contain the right or left lung


contains the trachea, esophagus, major vessels, and the pericardial cavity

pericardial cavity

contains the heart

abdominal cavity

contains digestive glands and organs and the retroperitoneal space

pelvic cavity

contains urinary, reproductive, and some digestive organs

retroperitoneal space

area posterior to the peritoneum and anterior to the muscular body wall


the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in the body at one time


the capacity for change.
Used to form or break bonds, transport molecules across membranes, and the movement of the body

kinetic energy

energy of motion

potential energy

stored energy

chemical energy

potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds

4 types of chemical reactions

1) decomposition 2) synthesis 3) exchange 4) reversible

anabolism is the same as


catabolism is the same as


activation energy

the energy required to start a reaction


proteins that lower the activation energy

exergonic reactions

reactions that release energy, "downhill"

endergonic reactions

reactions the absorb/use energy, "uphill"


essential molecules obtained from food


molecules made or broken down in the body

inorganic molecules

not based on carbon and hydrogen,
examples are CO2, O2, H20, and inorganics acis/bases/salts

organic molecules

based on carbon and hydrogen,
examples include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids


dissolves a substance


is the substance dissolved

4 properties of water

1) solubility 2) reactivity 3) high heat capacity 4) lubrication

most body chemistry occurs in...


more substances dissolve in this than any other substance



the dissociation of ions and polar compounds in water

hydration spheres

polar water molecules surround ions and polar molecules to keep them in a solution


ions that conduct electricity in solution

four major classes of organic compounds

1) carbohydrates 2) lipids 3) proteins 4) nucleic acids

gross anatomy

macroscopic anatomy,deals with structures you can see with the naked eye
- may use endoscope, dissection, xray, or MRI

surface anatomy

studies general form and superficial structures
- No dissection, only palpation and visual observation


"the study of cells"
- cell origin, structure, function, and pathology
- microscopic anatomy


study of tissues
- microscopic anatomy


group of similar specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function

organ systems

group of organs that work together to perform a specific function


(think frontal lobe of the brain, this is located at the forehead)


relating to the eye


the bony socket within which the eye resides


cheek, or sides of the mouth


ante="before" cubitum="elbow"
bend of the arm, infront of the elbow, where blood is most commonly drawn


(from the latin pollere= "to be strong", think thumb wars)


human finger or toe


specifically the finger bones


(look for the crease where your leg joins your abdomen)


private parts
(think hair)


the area of the femor or the thigh


relating to the whole leg


big toe


forms the highest part of the shoulder, where the the collar bone attaches, upper edge of the shoulder blade




back of the knee






(you 'plant' your self)

abdominopelvic quadrants

perpindicular lines at the naval that divides the abdoman into 4 sections
-Right upper, Right lower, Left lower, Left upper

Right upper quadrant

contiains the liver, gallbladder, right kidney, tail of pancreas

Left upper quadrant

contains the stomach, spleen, head of pancreas, left kidney

Right lower quadrant

appendix, large intestine

left lower quadrant

large intestine, urinary bladder


Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio


simple sugars, function as energy source
(glucose, fructose, galactose)


two simple sugars joined by a dehydration synthesis, function as an energy source
(sucrose, lactose, maltose)

function of polysaccharides

energy storage and structure
(glycogen, starch, cellulose)


simple sugar that is the most important metabolic fuel in the body


a polysaccharide found in the liver that is made up of glucose monomers

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