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Bio 223 Anatomy & Physiology Exam 1

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Anatomy
The study of structure.
Physiology
The study of the functions of anatomical structures.
All specific functions (physiology) are...
performed by specific structures (anatomy).
The chemical or molecular level of organizaton includes
Atoms, proteins (arranged in molecules and filaments)
What are the 6 levels of body organization?
Chemical/molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, and organism.
These organs are part of the Integumentary system
skin, hair, sweat glands, and nails
These organs are part of the Skeletal system
bones, cartilage, associated ligaments, bone marrow
These organs are part of the Muscular system
skeletal muscles and associated tendons
These organs are part of the nervous system
brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sense organs
These organs are part of the Endocrine system
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, endocrine tissues in other systems
These organs are part of the Cardiovascular system
hear, blood, blood vessels
These organs are part of the Lymphatic system
spleen, thymus, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils
These organs are part of the respiratory system
nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli
These organs are part of the Digestive system
Teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
These organs are part of the Urinary system
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
These organs are part of the Male reproductive system
testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, penis, scrotum
These organs are part of the Female reproductive system
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, labia, clitoris, mammary glands
3 functions of the integumentary system
protect against environment,
regulate body temperature,
provide sensory info
3 functions of the skeletal system
support and protect other tissues,
store calcium and other minerals,
forms blood cells
3 functions of the muscular system
provide movement,
provide protection and support for other tissues,
generate heat to maintain body temperature
3 functions of the nervous system
direct immediate responses to stimuli,
coordinate activities of other organ systems,
provide and interpret sensory info
3 functions of the endocrine system
direct long-term changes in activities of other organ systems,
adjust metabolic activity and energy used by the body,
controls structural and functional changes during development
2 functions of the cardiovascular system
distribute blood, water, dissolved materials,
distribute heat
2 functions of the lymphatic system
defend against infection and disease,
return tissue fluids to the bloodstream
4 functions of the respiratory system
deliver air to the alveoli,
transfer oxygen to the bloodstream,
remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream,
produce sounds for communication
4 functions of the digestive system
process and digest food,
absorb and conserve water,
absorb nutrients,
store energy reserves
4 functions of the urinary system
excrete waste from the blood,
control water balance,
store urine prior to elimination,
regulate blood ion concentration and pH
2 functions of the male reproductive system
produce sperm, suspending fluids, and hormones,
sexual intercourse
4 functions of the female reproductive system
produce oocytes, and hormones,
support a developing embryo until delivery,
provide milk to a newborn,
sexual intercourse
Homeostasis
all systems working together to maintain a stable internal environment, or maintain a 'set point'
Goldilocks principle
a way of describing how everything must be 'just right' in homeostasis
2 mechanisms of Homeostatic regulation
autoregulation and extrinsic regulation
autoregulation
Also known as intrinsic regulation.
An automatic response in a cell, tissue, or organ to environmental change.
Extrinsic Regulation:
Responses controlled by nervous and endocrine systems and used to maintain homeostasis
the two major control systems of the body
the nervous and endocrine systems
which system of control is faster, the nervous or the endocrine system?
nervous stem
the 3 parts of homeostasis regulation
1) receptor
2) control center
3) effector
Receptor
The part of homeostasis regulation that receives/senses the stimulus
Control center
The part of homeostasis regulation that processes the information, and sends a response message.
Effector
The part of homeostasis regulation that carries out the message and causes a change.
two methods used by an effector to maintain homeostasis
positive feedback, or negative feedback
negative feedback
the effector moves a parameter in the opposite direction from the stimulus
It maintains the normal range
Body temperature regulation is an example of what kind of feedback?
negative feedback
Positive feedback
The effector moves a parameter in the same direction as the stimulus
The normal range is lost
Blood clotting is an example of what kind of feedback?
positive feedback
What does it mean that homeostasis involves a dynamic equilibirum?
Dynamic= in motion
that it is continually adapting and changing to maintain balance
systems integration
the idea that all systems work together to maintain homeostasis
What organ systems are involved in maintaining body temperature?
integumentary, muscular, cardiovascular, and nervous
What organ systems are involved in maintaining body fluid composition?
digestive, cardiovascular, urinary, skeletal, respiratory, and lymphatic
What organ systems are involved in maintaining body fluid volume?
urinary, digestive, integumentary, cardiovascular, lymphatic
What organ systems are involved in maintaining waste product concentration
urinary, digestive, cardiovascular
What organ systems are involved in maintaining blood pressure?
cardiovascular, nervous, and endocrine
superficial anatomy
locating structures on or near the body surface
anatomical position
hands at sides, palms facing forward
supine
lying down, face up
prone
lying down, face down
anatomical landmarks
refers to palpable structures
anatomical regions
specific location or areas
anterior
to the rear, to the back
posterior or dorsal
the back surface, towards the back
ventral
belly side
caudal
towards the tail
cranial or cephalic
towards the head
medial
towards the middle
lateral
towards the outside
proximal
close to a base
distal
farther from a base
superficial
close to the surface
deep
far from the surface
superior
above
inferior
below
plane
a 3 dimensional axis
section
a slice taken parallel to a plane
transverse or horizontal plane
a plane perpendicular to the long axis that divides the body into inferior and superior portions
Sagittal plane
a plane parallel to the long axis that divides the body into equal right and left portions
Parasagittal
a plane parallel to the long axis that divides the body into unequal right and left portions
frontal or coronal plane
separates the body into anterior and posterior portions
2 functions of body cavities
1) protect organs from shock
2) permit changes in size and shape of internal organs
ventral body cavity
also called the coelom
made up of thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and divided by the diaphragm
serous membranes
tissue formed of 2 layers with fluid inbetween.
They line the body cavities (parietal layer) and cover organs (visceral layer).
Thoracic cavity
superior to the diaphragm,
made up of the mediastinum, right pleural and left pleural cavities
abdominopelvic cavity
inferior to the diaphragm to the pelvic bones,
made up of the abdominal and pelvic cavities
pleural cavities
contain the right or left lung
mediastinum
contains the trachea, esophagus, major vessels, and the pericardial cavity
pericardial cavity
contains the heart
abdominal cavity
contains digestive glands and organs and the retroperitoneal space
pelvic cavity
contains urinary, reproductive, and some digestive organs
retroperitoneal space
area posterior to the peritoneum and anterior to the muscular body wall
metabolism
the sum of all chemical reactions occurring in the body at one time
energy
the capacity for change.
Used to form or break bonds, transport molecules across membranes, and the movement of the body
kinetic energy
energy of motion
potential energy
stored energy
chemical energy
potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds
4 types of chemical reactions
1) decomposition 2) synthesis 3) exchange 4) reversible
anabolism is the same as
synthesis
catabolism is the same as
decomposition
activation energy
the energy required to start a reaction
enzymes
proteins that lower the activation energy
exergonic reactions
reactions that release energy, "downhill"
endergonic reactions
reactions the absorb/use energy, "uphill"
nutrients
essential molecules obtained from food
metabolites
molecules made or broken down in the body
inorganic molecules
not based on carbon and hydrogen,
examples are CO2, O2, H20, and inorganics acis/bases/salts
organic molecules
based on carbon and hydrogen,
examples include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids
solvent
dissolves a substance
solute
is the substance dissolved
4 properties of water
1) solubility 2) reactivity 3) high heat capacity 4) lubrication
most body chemistry occurs in...
water
more substances dissolve in this than any other substance
water
ionization
the dissociation of ions and polar compounds in water
hydration spheres
polar water molecules surround ions and polar molecules to keep them in a solution
electrolytes
ions that conduct electricity in solution
four major classes of organic compounds
1) carbohydrates 2) lipids 3) proteins 4) nucleic acids
gross anatomy
macroscopic anatomy,deals with structures you can see with the naked eye
- may use endoscope, dissection, xray, or MRI
surface anatomy
studies general form and superficial structures
- No dissection, only palpation and visual observation
cytology
"the study of cells"
- cell origin, structure, function, and pathology
- microscopic anatomy
histology
study of tissues
- microscopic anatomy
tissues
group of similar specialized cells that work together to perform a specific function
organ systems
group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
frontal
forehead
(think frontal lobe of the brain, this is located at the forehead)
ocular
relating to the eye
orbital
the bony socket within which the eye resides
buccal
cheek, or sides of the mouth
antecubital
ante="before" cubitum="elbow"
bend of the arm, infront of the elbow, where blood is most commonly drawn
pollex
thumb
(from the latin pollere= "to be strong", think thumb wars)
digits
human finger or toe
phalanges
specifically the finger bones
inguinal
groin
(look for the crease where your leg joins your abdomen)
pubic
private parts
(think hair)
femoral
the area of the femor or the thigh
crural
relating to the whole leg
hallux
big toe
acromial
forms the highest part of the shoulder, where the the collar bone attaches, upper edge of the shoulder blade
olecranal
Elbow
popliteal
back of the knee
sural
Calf
calcaneal
heel
plantar
foot
(you 'plant' your self)
abdominopelvic quadrants
perpindicular lines at the naval that divides the abdoman into 4 sections
-Right upper, Right lower, Left lower, Left upper
Right upper quadrant
contiains the liver, gallbladder, right kidney, tail of pancreas
Left upper quadrant
contains the stomach, spleen, head of pancreas, left kidney
Right lower quadrant
appendix, large intestine
left lower quadrant
large intestine, urinary bladder
carbohydrate
Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
monosaccharides
simple sugars, function as energy source
(glucose, fructose, galactose)
disaccharides
two simple sugars joined by a dehydration synthesis, function as an energy source
(sucrose, lactose, maltose)
function of polysaccharides
energy storage and structure
(glycogen, starch, cellulose)
glucose
simple sugar that is the most important metabolic fuel in the body
C6H12O6
glycogen
a polysaccharide found in the liver that is made up of glucose monomers
lipids
hydrophobic molecules made up of primarily Carbon and hydrogen
5 types of lipids and their primary function
1) fatty acids: energy source
2) eicosanoids: hormone, immune
3) glycerides: energy source, insulation, protection
4) steroids: structural, hormones, digestive bile
5) phospholipids and glycolipids: structural
fatty acid
a type of lipid formed by long chains of nonpolar C, H and ending with a carboxyl group
(may be saturated or unsaturated)
primary function is energy source
eicosanoids
a type of lipid derived from the fatty acid arachidonic acid
example: prostaglandins
function: chemical messangers for local cells
prostaglandins
a type of eicosanoid which functions as local hormones and are made of short-chain fatty acids
glycerides
a type of lipid formed by one or more fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
3 functions of glycerides
1) energy source/storage
2) insulation
3) protection
triglyceride
a glyceride formed by 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acid tails
steroid
a type of lipid formed by four rings of CH and additional functional groups
cholesterol
a type of steroid that is an important component of the cell membrane
steroid hormones
includes estrogen and testosterone
phospholipids
a type of lipid formed of diglycerides attached to a phosphate groups
glycolipids
a type of lipid formed of diglycerides attached to a sugar
structure and function of phospholipids and glycolipids
both are components of cell membranes
they are have a hydrophilic head (phosphate or sugar) and a hydrophobic tail (fatty acids)
functions of steroids
cholesterol: plasma membrane component
estrogen/testosterone/ corticosteroids: hormones
bile salts: digestive
proteins
a polymer made up of 20 kinds of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
5 components of an amino acids
1) central alpha carbon
2) alpha amino group
3) alpha carboxyl group
4) hydrogen
5) R group
peptide bond
a covalent bond between the amine of one amino acid and the carboxyl of another amino acid formed by a dehydration synthesis
peptides
a collection of two or more amino acids connected covalently by peptide bonds
polypeptides
a long, continuous, unbranched peptide
primary structure
the sequence of amino acids
secondary structure
interactions between amino acids that are close in primary sequence (<10 aa's apart)
include alpha helices and beta pleated sheets
tertiary structure
interactions between amino acids that are not close in primary sequence (>10 aa's apart)
folds one polypeptide
quaternary structure
interactions between polypeptides
not every protein will have this type of structure
fibrous proteins
formed by primary and secondary structure resulting in tough, durable, and generally insoluble long strands or sheets
globular proteins
the most common form of protein, found compact and round, generally soluble
substrates
a molecule that binds to the active site of an enzyme
active site
a specific location on an enzyme that binds the substrate
denaturation
loss of shape and function of a protein due to heat or pH
glycoprotein
large protein and small carbohydrate component
examples: enzymes, antibodies, hormones, blood type, mucus
proteoglycan
large carbohydrates with a small protein component, these promote viscosity in tissue fluids
mucus
a glycoprotein
nucleic acid
an organic compound which is a polymer made up of nucleotide monomers
Examples are DNA or RNA which function in information storage and processing in the cell
the most abundant and important organic molecule
proteins
7 functions of proteins
1. support
2. movement
3. transport
4. buffering
5. metabolic regulation (enzymes)
6. coordination and control (hormones)
7. defense (antibodies)
deoxyribonucleic acid
double stranded nucleic acid found in the nucleus and functions in information storage
ribonucleic acid
single stranded nucleic acid which directs intermediate steps in proteins synthesis (transcription)
mRNA
carries info from nucleus to cytosol
tRNA
reads the mRNA to interpret which nucleotide is next in the AA sequence
rRNA
forms peptide bonds between nucleotides in protein synthesis
nucleotide
monomer of nucleic acids
made up of three parts: pentose sugar, phosphate group and nitrogenous base
nitrogenous base
one of the 3 parts of a nucleotide
purine
nitrogenous bases formed by two rings, includes adenine, and guanine
adenine
a pyrimidine which forms a hydrogen bond with thymine or uracil
guanine
a purine that forms a hydrogen bond with cytosine
pyrimidine
nitrogenous base formed by a single ring, include cytosine, thymine, and uracil
cytosine
a pyrimidine that forms a hydrogen bond with guanine
thymine
a pyrimidine found only in DNA that forms a hydrogen bond with adenine
uracil
a pyrimidine found only in RNA that forms hydrogen bonds with adenine
complementary base pairs
hydrogen bonds that form between nitrogenous bases
A --> T
G--> C
A--> U
high-energy compound
a nucleotide that is used to store energy (ATP)
phosphorylation
addition of a phosphate group, stores energy
adenosine diphosphate
formed by adenine, ribose sugar, and 2 phosphate groups
adenosine triphosphate
formed by adenine, ribose sugar, and 3 phosphate groups (higher in energy than ADP)
adenosine triphosphatase
enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP to ADP and results in the release of energy
metabolic turnover
the continuous degradation and synthesis of cellular components which allows growth, change and adaptation
examples of inorganic compounds
water, acids, bases, salts, dissolved gases
examples of organic compounds
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and high energy compounds
relationship between atoms and elements?
atoms are a single molecule the smallest single molecule possible, elements are made up of multiple units of the same atom
location/mass/charge for each subatomic particle
electron: mass negligible, located in the electron cloud, negative charge, very influential in deciding reactivity
proton: mass 1 amu, located in nucleus positive charge, defines what element it is
neutron: mass 1amu, located in nucleus, no charge, defines different isotopes of an element
atomic number vs. atomic mass vs. atomic weight
atomic number: the number of protons
atomic mass: specific mass of a particular isotope (protons+ neutrons)
atomic weight: the average of all isotopes of an element
what are enzymes?
proteins that lower the activation energy of a reaction
structure and function of carbohydrates
C:H:O in a 1:2:1 ratio, water soluble
normal function as energy source or storage, or in the case of some polysaccharides structure
cell theory
the idea that the cell is the smallest functional unit, it maintains homeostasis at the cellular level. All life is built from cells, and all cells come from the division of other cells.
phospholipid bilayer
Forms a major part of the plasma membrane. Consists of 1two layers of phospholipids with hydrophilic phosphate heads outwards and hydrophobic lipid tails facing each other inward
functions of the plasma membrane
1) barrier
2) regulate passage of molecules/ions
3) receive info from cell exterior
4) structural support to anchor cells and tissues
2 kinds of membrane proteins:
1) integral: cannot be removed, embedded within the membrane
2) peripheral: easily separated, bound to surface of membrane
6 types of membrane proteins with functions
1) anchoring: anchor cell to other structures
2) recognition: label the cell as normal/abnormal
3) enzymes: catalyze reactions
4) receptors: response to exterior environment/signals
5) carriers: transport specific molecules
6) channels: an actual pore for a substance
membrane carbohydrates
proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and glycolipids
glycocalyx functions
lubricate/protect
receptors
recognition (immune response)
anchor/locomotion
Glycocalyx
carbohydrates on the exterior of the cell membrane that form a 'sugar coat'
cytoplasm
all material inside the cell but outside of the nucleus, includes cytosol and organelles
cytosol
intracellular fluid within the cytoplasm
organelle
structures within the cytoplasm with a specific function, can be membranous or nonmembranous
nonmembranous organelles
have no membrane and thus are exposed to the cytosol;
includes cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribosomes, and proteasomes
cytoskeleton
a nonmembranous organelle involving 3 kinds of structural proteins for cell shape and strength
microvilli
a nonmembranous organelle involving finger shaped projections of the plasma membrane which increase cell surface area for absorption
centrioles
a nonmembranous organelle which forms the spindle apparatus for cell division
cilia
nonmembranous organelles which are long, slender extensions of plasma membrane used to move fluids across its surface
ribosomes
nonmembranous organelles which are involved in protein synthesis
can be either free or fixed
have both a small and large ribosomal subunit
proteasomes
a nonmembranous organelle that contains proteolytic enzymes
- responsible for protein degradation, and immune response
membranous organelles
are isolated from the cytosol by a membrane
- include ER, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes mitochondria, and the nucleus
endoplasmic reticulum
a membranous organelle that functions in protein/carb/lipid synthesis, storage and transport, as well as detoxing drugs and toxins
- products are sent to the golgi apparatus
- can be smooth or rough ER
smooth ER
carbohydrate and lipid synthesis
rough ER
protein and glycoprotein synthesis, aids in protein folding
golgi apparatus
a membranous organelle that modifies and sorts products received from the ER. It can then send them to the cytoplasm, or the plasma membrane for secretion by exocytosis
lysosomes
a membranous organelle that contains digestive enzymes and is responsible for degrading old organelles, damaged cells, or extracellular material
peroxisome
a membranous organelle that is smaller and carries different digestive enzymes from lysosomes. It is responsible for degradation of fatty acids and organic compounds
degrades old organelles, damaged cell, and extracellular material
lysosomes
degrades fatty acids and organic compounds
peroxisomes
mitochondria
a membranous organelle responsible for energy production
where do glycolysis, citric acid cycle, electron transport chain, and aerobic metabolism occur within the cell
the mitochondria
cristae vs. cisternae
both are formed by folds of membrane but cristae form the chambers in mitochondria and cisternae form chambers in the ER
glycolysis
glucose (cytoplasm) to pyruvate (mitochondria)
citric acid cycle
also calls krebs cycle
breaks down pyruvate(mitochondrial matrix) into molecules that use the ETC to produce ATP
nucleus
a membranous organelle responsible for information storage and retrieval
nuclear pores
channel proteins in the nuclear envelope that allow chemical communication between nucleus and cytoplasm
nucleoli
transient nuclear organelles that synthesize rRNA, assemble the ribosomal subunits
-composed of RNA, and histones
- appear as dark staining areas of the nuclei
chromosome vs. chromatin
one is the tightly coiled version for cell division, the other is loosely coiled when cells are not dividing
membrane flow
the idea that there is continuous movement and exchange of between membranous organelles via vesicles
transport vesicles
vesicles that originate from the cisternae of the ER and go to the golgi apparatus
transcription
DNA to RNA using RNA polymerase and a template strand of DNA
mRNA codon
triplet of RNA with nucleotides that are complementary to the DNA sequence
translation
RNA to polypeptide using mRNA with the message, ribosome (rRNA) to read the message and tRNA to carry amino acids to the ribosome
tRNA anticodon
has a bound amino acid that is complementary to the mRNA triplet
types of permeability
freely (anything passes through), impermeable (nothing passes), and selective (some do, some don't)
active transport
requires energy to move molecules against the concentration gradient;
can be carrier mediated or vesicular, primary or secondary
primary active transport
requires direct input of energy, carrier molecule performs ATP hydrolysis
the sodium-potassium exchange pump is an example of what kind of transport?
primary active transport
the sodium- glucose cotransporter is an example of what kind of transport?
secondary active transport
secondary active transport
indirect energy input, uses potential energy from an ion gradient
types of vesicular transport
endocytosis (receptor-mediated, pinocytosis, phagocytosis), exocytosis
endocytosis
vesicle transport molecules into cell
exocytosis
releases molecules out of the cell using vesicles
pseudopodia
cytoplasmic extensions used in phagocytosis that surround an object and fuse the plasma membrane around it to bring it into the cell
also known as cell drinking
pinocytosis
passive transport
movement of molecules with their concentration gradient using diffusion or carrier-mediated transport and without requiring energy
diffusion
movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration to establish equilibrium
- can be simple or carrier-mediated
osmosis
diffusion of water
simple diffusion
direct diffusion across a membrane, molecules must be small and hydrophobic
how do alcohol, oxygen, carbon dioxide and fatty acids cross the plasma membrane?
by simple diffusion
channel-mediated diffusion
diffusion across a membrane using channel proteins, used by large or hydrophilic molecules
how do sugar and ions cross the plasma membrane?
by channel-mediated diffusion, or carrier-mediated transport
3 characteristics of carrier-mediated transport
1) specificity
2) saturation limits are set by the protein
3) regulation by cofactors or inhibitors
is carrier mediated transport active or passive?
can be either depending on the molecule and if it is going with or against the concentration gradient
facilitated diffusion
a term used for passive carrier-mediated transport,
used for molecules that are too big for channel proteins
5 factors that affect diffusion
size, temperature, distance, electrical forces, and the concentration gradient
resting potential
the transmembrane potential of an undisturbed cell
concentrations of Na and K inside and outside of the cell
extracellular: high Na, low K
intracellular: low Na, high K
3 cytoskeleton filaments
microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
microfilaments
attach ckytoskeleton to integral proteins, change the cell shape
intermediate filaments
holds organelles and anchors the cell
microtubules
moves organelles/vesicles, forms the centrioles
synthesis of a protein requires 3 steps...
1) gene activation
2) transcription
3) translation
osmotic pressure vs. hydrostatic pressure
osmotic is the amount of water required to flow across a membrane so that it is at equilibrium
hydrostatic is the amount of pressure require to block that flow of water
isotonic solution
extracellular concentration = intracellular concentration
NO flow of water
hypertonic solution
extracellular > intracellular
water flows out of the cell
hypotonic solution
extracellular<intracellular
water flows into the cell
when does the cell grow and perform normal functions?
during interphase
when does DNA replication occur
during the S phase of interphase
Tissue:
collection of cells that are similar in structure and cell products that perform specific, limited functions
Four types of tissue
epithelial, connective, muscle, neural
two kinds of epithelial tissue
epithelia (line internal/external surfaces) and glands (produce secretions)
5 characteristics of epithelia
1) cellularity
2) polarity
3) attachment
4) avascularity
5) regeneration
tight junction
type of cell junction cell to cell, seals the plasma membrane to prevent passage of water and solutes between the cells
cell adhesion molecules
transmembrane proteins form cell junctions connecting cell to cell or cell to matrix
gap junction
type of cell junction that connects the cytoplasm of two cells to allow rapid communication
desmosome
type of cell junction that connects the cytoskeleton of adjacent cells to allow bending and twisting
hemidesmosome
type of cell junction that connects cytoskeleton of cell to the basement membrane
this cell lines body cavities and commonly functions in absorption and diffusion
simple squamous
this type of cell functions in protection, may be keratinized and is found in the integumentary system
stratified squamous
this cell functions in secretion and absorption
simple cuboidal
the cell tolerates a lot of stretching and is often found in the urinary system
transitional
this cell functions in absorption and secretion
simple columnar
these cells often have cilia and are found where fluid must be moved
pseudostratified columnar
endocrine glands
release hormones into interstitial fluids without the use of ducts
exocrine glands
release secretions onto the epithelial surface through the use of ducts
merocrine secretion
mode of secretion where vesicles release product (sweat glands)
apocrine secretion
mode of secretion where shedding cytoplasm releases product (mammary)
holocrine secretion
mode of secretion where the cell bursts to release product (sebaceous)
three kinds of connective tissue
CT proper, fluid CT, supporting CT
3 characteristics of connective tissue
1) specialized cells
2) ground tissue
3) fibers (collagen, reticular, elastic)
matrix of CT
formed of ground tissue and fibers
collagen fibers
most common CT fiber, long, straight, strong and flexible
reticular fiber
interwoven fibers, stabilize position of cells, blood vessels, and nerves
elastic fibers
branched, wavy, flexible fibers
loose connective tissue
a type of CT proper where ground substance is greater than fibers
- example in the body are areolar, adipose, and reticular
areolar
loose CT proper found under the skin, open structure with elastic fibers, and highly vascularized
adipose
loose CT proper found around the kidneys, primarily adipocytes, provides padding, shock absorption and insulation
reticular
loose CT proper found in the liver; a complex network of fibers supporting functional cells
dense connective tissue
a type of CT proper where fibers are greater than the amount of ground substance; used to build strong connections
dense regular CT
type ofCT proper with parallel fibers that absorb stress lengthwise
tendons ligaments and elastic tissue are all examples of...
dense regular CT
dense irregular CT
a type of CT proper with no pattern of fibers; absorbs stress in many directions; layers are found under the skin and in organ capsules
specialized cells found in the CT proper
fibroblasts, fibrocytes, adipocytes, mesenchymal cells
fibroblasts
most abundant cell in the CT proper, secrete proteins for ground substance viscosity and extracellular fibers
fibrocytes
second most abundant cell in the CT proper, maintain fibers
mesenchymal cells
stem cells that regenerate CT tissue
fluid connective tissue
watery matrix of dissolved proteins that carry a specific cell type
blood and lymph are examples of
fluid CT
bone and cartilage are examples of...
Supporting CT
cartilage vs. bone structure
- both have a general matrix covered by a perichondrium with two layers.
- the matrix of cartilage is avascular, bone is very vascular
- cartilage has chondrocytes and bone has osteocyte cells, both surrounded by lacunae
compare cartilage vs. bone matrix
cartilage: chondroitin sulfate and water ground substance; with collagen, elastic and/or reticular fibers
bone: calcium salts with little liquid, with collagen fibers