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Chapter 1 (Quiz)
Terms in this set (42)
Most of what is now meant by "modern" made its first appearance in?
What had Europe created by 1900 that the world had ever seen?
the finest political, economic, technological, scientific, and military acheivements
What tends to happen in modern society?
old customs loosen and ancestral religions are often questioned and transformed
What period was modern times immediately preceded by (1000 yrs)
The Middle ages
When did the middle ages occur?
500 AD following the classical or Greco-roman period
What do medievalists break the middle ages down into?
Early, High and Later middle ages
The major languages of Europe all belong to which language family?
Name 3 branches of the Indo-European language?
Germanic, Slavic, and Romance
What does Finno-Uguric produce?
Modern finnish, estonian, and hungarian
Who looks for rational or natural explanations of the human condition?
What did Greek philosophers criticize?
The web of myth, they looked into the variety and confusion they saw, denied demonic possession while observing human sickness, and proposed that the physical world was in flux
St. augustines book, City of God, proclaimed that
spiritual and political power were separate and independent
What did St. Augustine's work present? Explain.
"Dualism" where earthly and heavenly (temporal and eternal) existences are separate. He presents the notion that while the subordinate material world perishes, a more important realm endures. His readers will find a multitude of meanings and implications in later ages.
1. one ruler held both political and spiritual power
2.Western world escaped this
3. laid the germ of many liberties in later societies
What idea opened the way to a dynamic and progressive way of living in the west?
The idea that no single ruler, government or institution could be so mighty as to rise above moral criticism
What are some characteristics of modern society (4)
1. Almost instantaneous communications
2. an elaborate means of transportations
3.pressures for increased democracy
4. demands for individual liberation
4 achievements of Charlemage
1. The promotion of the study of ancient learning and the improvement of the Western alphabet
2. The creation of a new and more stable coinage
3. The conquest of parts of Spain, Italy, and Bohemia
4. The establishment of an imperial capital at Aachen
Where did Charlemagne dispatch embassies?
To the Byzantine emperor at Constantinople as well as the Muslim caliph at Baghdad. He did not conquer those realms.
What did the Great Schism of 1054 between the Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches signify? (4)
1. Definitive division of the Christian world into eastern and western halves
2. Severing of another of the Latin West's ties with antiquity
3. Growing emergence of the Roman Catholic West as an independent center of civilization
4. Allowed for the refusal of the Greek patriarchs to recognize the claims to primacy of the bishop of Rome
Who does Constantinople fall to in 1453?
the Ottoman turks
3 facts about Europe's population
1. Its distribution suddenly grew more dense about the year 1000
2. Western Europe's population, sparse even in roman days, became more so after 500
3. After 1000, Europe's population expanded steadily for two or three hundred years
When did the population of the west decrease, but then increase?
Decreased in both the Early and Later Middle Ages, and increased during the High Middle ages
In the strict sense, the system known as feudalism applied only to...
What was feudalism in essence?
Government conducted on a local basis as a system of reciprocal duties where greater lords were considered as liege and lessor lords were regarded as vassals
What two things did the three-field system due which was introduced during the High Middle Ages?
1. Divided arable fields into three parts
2. Increased the land used annually
What increased due to the three field system and what was avoided?
The amount of arable land brought under cultivation increased as did the harvest yielding an enlarged food supply. Soil exhaustion was avoided.
The manorial system did what four things
1. Was the agricultural base on which a ruling class was supported
2. Provided the peasantry with protection from physical violence
3. Established the framework of communal living without which the peasantry could not prosper
4. Bound peasants to the soil as serfs
What is manorialism the rudimentary beginning of?
Western economics and social relations
In towns, merchants and craftsmen formed guilds which did what? (3 points)
1. Marked out a career for young men called apprentices
2. Provided a means of vocational education
3. Had masters supervise the affairs of a specific trade or craft
Describe the work accomplished with a trade through a guild
assured to be reliable and performed by experienced persons thanks to the standards of the guild
Early parliaments represented whom?
the estates of the realm
Explain how the latin word "Parliamentum" which means a time and place for talking relates
By 13th century in France, Germany, Spain, and Britain, a king, like any lord, was supposed to act in council (or court). The royal council produced departments of government as great parleys or "talks" which began to be referred to as parliaments in England, as Estates General in France, and Tag (day of meeting) in Germany. The representatives of the nobility, the clearly and the towns (burgher class) met to address the monarch.
The practice of secular rulers appointing bishops
History and definition of Investiture
Meant the conferring upon the new bishops the signs of his spiritual authority, the ring and the staff by the pope. When a layman, such as the German Kaiser Henry IV (Holy Roman Emperor) performed this act, "lay investiture" had begun. Gregory prohibited it and excommunicated Henry (who then sought out the pope at Canossa to do penance).
In the 12th and 13th centuries, the queen of the sciences was
Define theology and why it was the queen of sciences
The intellectual study of religion. With the birth of medieval scholasticism and the emergence of universities in the High Middles ages.
4 reasons why the crusades were possible
1. The growth of Italian shipping
2. The rise of a sense of European identity and purpose
3. The emergence of more consolidated monarchies
4. The wave of religious fervor that brought nobles and commoners alike into the crusading armies
Where was the manpower for the Crusades recruited from
Christian Europe- primarily Germany, France, and England. Muslims were not recruited and converted in order to join these Christian campaigns.
Despite its achievements, why did China not generate as Europe did in the middle ages with regards to the forces that led to the modern scientific and industrial world. (4 pts)
1. Europe lacked Chinas all-encompassing empire, provoking more competition between kings, lords, and towns
2. Conformity was not one of the primary european virtues
3. With religion and the church kept distinct from the state, the question of what europeans should do with their lives was less dependent on the political powers than in China
4. Europe has developed alphabet and revolutionized the printing industry which promoted the spread of literacy
What had China done first, but Europe did better. (2 pts)
The chinese first knew of gunpowder; but the Europeans developed more effective guns. The Chinese invented printing, but it was Johan Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, that developed moveable type thereby making books available and affordable.
In the 12th century, a great stream of new knowledge poured into Europe. It was derived from where?
How did the Arabs contribute to Europe during the twelfth century?
The veritable intellectual revolution was derived from Arabs, with whom Christians were in contact in Sicily and Spain. Arabs had already translated the works of ancient Greek science into Arabic. Bilingual Christians then translated these works into Latin.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
AP Euro Renaissance
AP European History Terms: 1347 - 1713
History Chapter 15
Euro Chapter 11
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